Biography of Carlos V (Carlos I of Spain)

Biography of Carlos V (Carlos I of Spain)

Carlos I of Spain and V of Germany it was the king who implanted the Habsburg dynasty in the Spanish monarchy. Grandson of the Catholic Monarchs, Isabel Y Fernando, got one of the biggest empires known so far.

He was born on February 24, 1500 in Ghent, Flanders. Their parents were Philip the Fair and Juana of Castile, later known as Juana la Loca. His grandparents were Isabel and Fernando, the Catholic Monarchs of Spain. During his childhood he was educated in the netherlands, under the tutelage of Adriano de Utrecht and Guillermo de Croy.

While still young, he began to take big responsibilities with respect to the territories that he was inheriting. In 1515 he assumed the governorship of the states under influence of the House of Burgundy by his paternal grandmother.

In 1516 his grandfather Fernando the Catholic died, so that inherited the crowns of Castile and Aragon, including the recently annexed Navarre and the Mediterranean dominions and the colonies.

Three years later, inherited from his grandfather Maximilian I of Austria the states belonging to the Habsburgs together with the possibility of accessing the german imperial crown. He was chosen as such that same year. His territories were so extensive that he decided to impose a Universal Christian Empire. To do this, he organized confrontations against those who opposed his hegemony.

In Spain it was not well accepted initially. It arrived on the peninsula in 1517. It was immediately labeled from foreigner, since he had grown up outside and was also accompanied by a court of foreign nobles. His policy was little directed towards the welfare of the peninsular territories. It barely respected municipal autonomy, besides being absent from the country for long periods of time.

Due to the numerous clashes, raised taxes enormously. This produced riots in the town in some areas of Castilla, Valencia and Mallorca. These insurrections had to be crushed militarily. To try to calm things down, he decided to stay in the country for a while and also marry his cousin Isabel of Portugal, as advised by the Castilian courts.

In Europe he had to face like the one who held the Christian hegemony against the Turks advancing towards Austria. At the same time, Barbarossa faced the maritime fleet in the Mediterranean. He also had to face each other four times with Francis I, King of France, due to territorial problems. Most of the European powers and even the papacy they supported francefearing the rising power of the emperor.

Another conflict he had to deal with was the Protestant reform initiated by Martin Luther. This ended the Catholic unity of Germany. Charles V could not allow this, so he demanded from the princes who had embraced Protestantism that return to catholic worship.

Took place the Schmalkalden War in 1546, in which he managed to defeat them, but was still forced to accept the division of religions. The Council of Trent began the Catholic Counter-Reformation in those same years.

Seeing that he had failed in his imperial project, he decided to abdicate. His abdication occurred in Brussels in 1555 in favor of his son Philip II. He left him the kingdoms of Spain, those of the House of Burgundy, the American colonies, the territories in Italy, the Netherlands and the Franche-Comté.

Likewise, divided the Habsburg territories in two, giving part to his brother Fernando, in addition to the imperial crown. Furthermore, due to the numerous confrontations he faced, he left the coffers of the state completely empty. Shortly afterwards, he retired to the monastery of Yuste affected by gout. He died on September 21, 1558.

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