Alan Brooke, Baron Alanbrooke of Brookeborough

Alan Brooke, Baron Alanbrooke of Brookeborough


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Alan Brooke, the son of the wealthy Victor Brooke of Ulster, was born in Bagnères-de-Bigorre on 23rd July, 1883. After graduating from the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich on 24 December 1902 Brooke was commissioned into the Royal Regiment of Artillery as a Second Lieutenant.

Brooke served in Ireland and India before the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. He served on the Western Frontwith the Royal Artillery. It has been claimed that during the Battle of the Somme in 1916 he introduced the idea of the creeping barrage system. An expert on artillery tactics, Brooke was mentioned six times in dispatches and became chief artillery officer in the 1st British Army.

In 1923 Brooke was promoted to colonel and lectured at Camberley Military College and the Imperial Defense College. He served with Bernard Montgomery who later commented: " I had, and retain, a great liking and an enormous admiration and respect for him. I consider he is the best soldier that any nation had produced for very many years." In 1937 Brooke was given the command of Britain's first mobile division and the following year he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant general and became head of the Territorial Anti-Aircraft Corps.

In August 1939 Brooke was appointed head of Southern Command and on the outbreak of the Second World War went to France as a member of the British Expeditionary Force under General John Gort. In June 1940 Brooke played a leading role in the evacuation of British troops at Dunkirk. General Brian Horrocks argued in his autobiography, A Full Life (1960): "The more I have studied this campaign the clearer it becomes that the man who really saved the B.E.F. was our own corps commander, Lieutenant-General A. F. Brooke. I felt vaguely at the time that this alert, seemingly iron, man without a nerve in his body, whom I met from time to time at 3rd Division headquarters and who gave out his orders in short, clipped sentences, was a great soldier, but it is only now that I realise fully just how great he was. We regarded him as a highly efficient military machine. It is only since I have read his diaries that I appreciate what a consummate actor he must have been. Behind the confident mask was the sensitive nature of a man who hated war."

Brooke returned to Britain and in July 1940 he replaced Edmund Ironside as commander of the Home Forces. In this post Brooke had several major disagreements with Winston Churchill about military strategy. It therefore came as a surprise when Churchill appointed him Chief of Imperial Staff in December 1941. General Harold Alexander believed it was a good appointment: "Brookie, as we always call him, was the outstanding and obvious man for the job; a fine soldier in every sense, and trusted and admired by the whole Army."

Although the two men continued to disagree about a large number of issues, for example, Brooke favoured an early invasion of Europe on order to take pressure off the Red Army on the Eastern Front, he gradually became Churchill's most important military adviser in the war.

Brooke was offered command of the British troops in the Middle East in August 1942 but turned it down suggesting General Harold Alexander for the post. In his diary Brooke recorded that it was more important for him to remain in Britain in order to stop Winston Churchill making any major military mistakes. He wrote in his diary: "We had to consider this morning one of Winston's worst minutes I have ever seen. I can only believe that he must have been quite tight when he dictated it. My God! How little the world at large knows what his failings and defects are!"

Churchill had promised Brooke command of Operation Overlord in 1944. However, President Franklin D. Roosevelt insisted that General Dwight Eisenhower should be given this important task. Promoted to field marshal in January 1944 he was created Baron Alanbrooke of Brookeborough in September 1945. After retiring from the British Army he was a director of Midland Bank.

Alan Brooke died on 17th June 1963.

My Corps Commander (in France in 1939) was General Brooke. We had been instructors together at the Staff College and I knew him well. I had, and retain, a great liking and an enormous admiration and respect for him. I consider he is the best soldier that any nation had produced for very many years.

The more I have studied this campaign the clearer it becomes that the man who really saved the B.E.F. Brooke (now Viscount Alanbrooke). Behind the confident mask was the sensitive nature of a man who hated war.

It seemed possible that the German Air Force could very rapidly be made to shift its weight back from the East to the West. At any rate, we must be ready for such a sudden change. Sir Alan Brooke, Commander-in-Chief of the Home Forces, was responsible for representing this vital need. He was quite right to set forth the claims of Home Defence, and this was certainly done by him and his powerful staff in a most vigorous fashion. He demanded large numbers of men, and confronted us with grisly reductions of fighting units if these were not forthcoming. It fell on me as Minister of Defence with the Chief of Staff to decide the true apportionment of our already heavily strained man-power and woman-power.

General Sir Alan Brooke (now Field-Marshal Lord Alanbrooke) succeeded General Sir John Dill as Chief of the Imperial General Staff in December 1941. In his appointment the Prime Minister made a wise choice. I served under him as a commander in the field most of the war and I could not have had a wiser, firmer, or more understanding military chief to guide and look after our interests.

Brookie, as we always call him, was the outstanding and obvious man for the job; a fine soldier in every sense, and trusted and admired by the whole Army. He had proved himself a capable commander of a corps in the early days of the war, and had been a senior instructor at the Staff College before the war; he was therefore well equipped to shoulder the responsibilities of his high appointment.

One of the most difficult days of my life. I had been offered the finest command I could ever hope for and I turned it down. It would take at least six months for any successor, taking over from me, to become as familiar with Churchill and his ways. During these six months anything might happen.

We had to consider this morning one of Winston's worst minutes I have ever seen. My God! How little the world at large knows what his failings and defects are!


Letters of congratulation and appreciation, 1939-1963

Letters of congratulation and appreciation sent to Brooke, mainly letters of appreciation from colleagues, 1940-1941, including Lt Gen Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, Maj Gen Bernard Law Montgomery and Col Ronald Stanyforth letters from Gen Ronald Forbes Adam and FM William Riddell Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood of Anzac and of Totnes, congratulating him on the award of his KCB, Jun 1940 letters congratulating him on his appointment as Commander-in-Chief, Home Forces, Jul 1940 letters, Nov-Dec 1941, congratulating him on appointment as Chief of the Imperial General Staff, notably from Rt Hon Winston (Leonard Spencer) Churchill, Prime Minister, 18 Nov 1941.


ALANBROOKE: 11/2

File MCL 2: notes by Marian C Long, research assistant to Royal Regiment of Artillery and Sir Arthur Wynne Morgan Bryant, [1952-1955], on Brooke's service with the British Expeditionary Force (BEF), France, 1914-1918, including notes on interviews with Maj Gen Edward Felix Norton and Canadian Gen Henry Duncan Graham Crerar, [1952-1954] extracts from letters to Long from Maj Nigel (Woodford) Aitken and Maj Gen Arthur Alec Goschen, [1952-1954] notes on Brooke's letters to his mother, 1916 notes on War Office files on 18 Div Artillery operations, 1916, and Canadian Corps operations, 1917 copies of extracts from letter to Lt Gen Sir Otto Marling Lund from Canadian Gen Henry Duncan Graham Crerar, [1952-1954], from A short history of World War One by Brig Gen Sir James Edward Edmonds (Oxford University Press, London, 1951) and from 'A history of the development of the British Artillery in France, 1914-1918', typescript text by Maj Stuart William Hughes Rawlins, [1918-1920] typescript copy of 'The coming of the creeping barrage', article by Brooke from The Journal of the Royal Artillery, Apr 1931. With photograph of Brig Gen Edward Whipple Bancroft Morrison, General Officer Commanding, Royal Artillery, Canadian Corps, and his staff (including Brooke), [1917], with covering letter to Long from Lt Gen Sir Otto Marling Lund, [1954].


Planläggning av Operation Overlord [ redigera | redigera wikitext ]

När det västallierade överkommandot bildades 1942 blev Brooke en av de viktiga personerna i dess ledning, och hans besvikelse var stor över att inte bli utsedd att leda invasionsstyrkorna eftersom den amerikanske generalen Dwight D Eisenhower utsågs till posten. Brookes insatser som ledare av den omfattande strategiska planläggningen kan inte nog betonas liksom hans fingertoppskänsla när det gällde de underställda cheferna på fältet och han var därigenom en av de verkligt viktiga befälhavarna på högsta nivå.


Alan Brooke, Baron Alanbrooke of Brookeborough - History

Alan Brooke
British Field Marshal during WW2 (World War 2 )

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Alan Francis Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke (July 23, 1883 - June 17, 1963) was a British Field Marshal during World War II.
Born at Bagn?res de Bigorre to a prominent Northern Irish family, Alan Brooke was educated in France and at the Royal Military College, Woolwich. During World War I he served with the Royal Artillery in France, ending the conflict as a Lieutenant-Colonel. Between the wars he was a lecturer at Camberley Staff College and the Imperial Defence College, where he worked with most of the leading British officers of the Second World War.

Following the outbreak of World War II, Brooke commanded the II Corps of the British Expeditionary Force and played a leading role in the evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk. In July 1940 he was appointed to command United Kingdom Home Forces and in December 1941 was promoted Chief of the Imperial General Staff and Chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, a post which he held until 1946.


In this role, Brooke served as the foremost military advisor to the Prime Minister, Winston Churchill, and to Britain's allies. He was offered command of British forces in the Middle East, which he declined, believing that that he ought to remain in Britain to prevent Churchill from leading the country into any foolhardy military adventures. He believed that the Prime Minister had offered him command of the Allied invasion of Western Europe and was bitterly disappointed to be passed over in favour of General Dwight D. Eisenhower.

Brooke was created Baron Alanbrooke of Brookeborough in 1945 and Viscount Alanbrooke in 1946.

The publication in 2001 of Alanbrooke's uncensored War Diaries attracted attention for their insight into the day-to-day running of the British war effort and their, at times, forthright criticism of Winston Churchill and other leading figures of the time.


The publication in 2001 of Alanbrooke's uncensored War Diaries attracted attention for their insight into the day-to-day running of the British war effort and their, at times, forthright criticism of Winston Churchill and other leading figures of the time.

Alanbrooke remains one of Britain's greatest soldiers and military tacticians sadly for someone who is such an important figure he remains relatively unknown amongst ordinary people. He is buried in his home village of Hartley Wintney Hampshire - where the final heir to Alanbrooke viscountancy also still lives.


Private life and ornithology

Alan Brooke was married twice. After six years of engagement he married Jane Richardson in 1914, a neighbour in County Fermanagh in Ulster. Six days into their honeymoon Brooke was recalled to active duty when the First World War started. The couple had one daughter and one son, Rosemary and Thomas. Jane Brooke died following a car accident in 1925 in which her husband was at the steering wheel. [49]

He regained happiness when he met Benita Lees (1892–1968), daughter of Sir Harold Pelly, 4th Bt., and the widow of Sir Thomas Lees, 2nd Bt.. He and Benita married in 1929. The marriage was very happy for the uxorious Brooke and resulted in one daughter and one son, Kathleen and Victor. [50] During the war the couple lived in Hartley Wintney in Hampshire. After the war, the Brookes' financial situation forced the couple to move into the gardener's cottage of their former home, where they lived for the rest of their lives. Their last years were darkened by the death of their daughter, Kathleen, in a riding accident in 1961. [51]

Alan Brooke had a love of nature. Hunting and fishing were among his great interests. His foremost passion, however, was birds. Brooke was a noted ornithologist, especially in bird photography. He was president of the Zoological Society of London from 1950–54 and vice-president of the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds. [52] [53] During breaks in the war planning, the CIGS could sometimes be seen in London book shops looking for rare books on birds. He bought a precious collection of books by John Gould, but financial considerations forced him to sell these volumes after the war.


Isi kandungan

United Kingdom Sunting

Brooke telah dijadikan Baron Alanbrooke, dari Brookeborough di Daerah Fermanagh, pada 1945, [4] dan Viscount Alanbrooke pada 1946. [5] [6] Anugerah lain termasuklah:

    (KG) in 1946. [7] (GCB) in 1942, [8][9]
    • Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) in 1940, [10]
      • Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) in 1937 [11]

      Beliau juga berkhidmat sebagai Canselor Universiti Queen Belfast dari tahun 1949 hingga kematiannya. Di Hari Pertabalan Queen Elizabeth II beliau telah dilantik Lord High Konstabel England, yang memerintah seluruh pasukan tentera yang mengambil bahagian dalam upacara itu. [28] Pada 1993, sebuah patung Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke telah didirikan di hadapan Kementerian Pertahanan di Whitehall di London. Patung ini telah di apit oleh dua patung panglima terkemuka lain Britain dalam Perang Dunia II, iaitu Viscount Slim dan Viscount Montgomery.

      Darjah kebesaran asing Sunting

        (Poland) (1943) [29] (Rusia) (1944) [30] (Belgium) (1946) [31] (Belgium) (1946) [31] (Greece) (1946) [32] (Belanda) (1948) [33] (Belgium) (1918) [34] (Denmark) (1951) (Portugal) (1955) [35]

      Lambang jata Sunting

      His coat of arms as issued to him by the College of Arms is: "Or, a cross engrailed per pale Gules and Sable, in dexter chief a crescent for difference."

      Watak Brooke telah dilakonkan dalam drama televisyen Churchill and the Generals oleh Eric Porter [36] dan dalam filem Churchill oleh Danny Webb. [37]


      ALANBROOKE: 13/6

      Photographs relating to Brooke's service as Chief of the Imperial General Staff, 1944, notably including photographs of Brooke with members of the Chinese Military Mission at dinner at the Chinese Embassy, [London], Feb 1944 during visit with Churchill to Normandy, France, Jun 1944 with Lt Gen Wladyslaw Anders, Commander, 2 Polish Corps, during visit to Polish forces, Italy, [Aug] 1944 with members of British, US and Canadian High Command at OCTAGON Conference, Quebec, Sep 1944 on visit to Moscow, Oct 1944 during visit with Churchill to attend Armistice ceremony in Paris, France, 11 Nov 1944.


      Alan Francis Brooke

      (1883–1963). During World War II Alan Francis Brooke was a British field marshal and chief of the Imperial General Staff. He was a skilled strategist and a key military adviser to British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

      Brooke was born to British parents on July 23, 1883, in Bagnères-de-Bigorre, France. Educated in France and at the Royal Military Academy at Woolwich, England, he served in the Royal Artillery during World War I. Between the World Wars, he distinguished himself in staff duties and was in charge of military training at the British War Office in 1936–37.

      Brooke began service in World War II as commander of the II Army Corps in France. After the Allies retreated to Dunkirk in 1940, he directed the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force. Brooke then returned to Britain and took command of the Home Forces. In December 1941 Churchill promoted him to chief of the Imperial General Staff, a post he held until 1946. As chairman of the Chiefs of Staff Committee, Brooke represented the members’ views firmly to the prime minister and to the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff and thus had a strong influence on Allied strategy. Promoted to field marshal in 1944, he was also recognized as a brilliant field commander, though he was never given any of the great overseas commands—including, to his great frustration, command over the Allied invasion of western Europe.

      For his military service, Brooke was created Baron Alanbrooke of Brookeborough in 1945 in 1946 he became a viscount. He died in Hartley Wintney, Hampshire, England, on June 17, 1963.


      Watch the video: Lt. Gen. Alanbrooke - January 1941 1941


Comments:

  1. Mac An Bharain

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  2. Trong Tri

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  3. Kleef

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  5. Ignatius

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  6. Kiarad

    I also noticed this sometimes, but somehow I didn’t attach any importance to it before.



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