Baseball

Baseball


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Willie Mays breaks National League home run record

On May 4, 1966, San Francisco Giants outfielder Willie Mays hits his 512th career home run to break Mel Ott’s National League record for home runs. Willie Howard ...read more

Jackie Robinson breaks color barrier

On April 15, 1947, Jackie Robinson, age 28, becomes the first African American player in Major League Baseball when he steps onto Ebbets Field in Brooklyn to compete for the Brooklyn Dodgers. Robinson broke the color barrier in a sport that had been segregated for more than 50 ...read more

Jackie Robinson

Jackie Robinson was an African American professional baseball player who broke Major Leagues Baseball’s infamous “color barrier” when he started at first base for the Brooklyn Dodgers on April 15, 1947. Until that time, professional ballplayers of color suited up for teams only ...read more

Silent No Longer: The Outspoken Jackie Robinson

The eyes of Abraham Lincoln gazed down from a portrait on the paneled walls inside the executive offices of the Brooklyn Dodgers Baseball Club as Branch Rickey fire-hosed a torrent of racial slurs at Jackie Robinson. The president and general manager of the Dodgers had little ...read more

Negro League Baseball

Negro League Baseball got its start thanks to the increasing popularity of two things after the Civil War: baseball and segregation.. The National Association of Amateur Base Ball Players rejected African American membership in 1867, and in 1876, owners of the professional ...read more

The Life of Lou Gehrig

He was the son of German immigrants.Born Henry Louis Gehrig in New York City on June 19, 1903, the future sports icon was the son of German immigrants. His father and mother each arrived in America as young adults then met and married in New York City. Gehrig, the only one of ...read more

How did baseball’s seventh-inning stretch originate?

Just like peanuts and Cracker Jack, the seventh-inning stretch is a baseball tradition. Precisely how this custom came about is unknown, but there are several theories. According to one popular tale, William Howard Taft, America’s 27th president, is to thank for the ritual. In ...read more

10 Things You May Not Know About Satchel Paige

1. Paige learned how to pitch in reform school. Leroy Robert Paige spent a hardscrabble youth working to support his family in Mobile, Alabama, and may have first earned the nickname “Satchel” during a stint as a porter at a local train station. He grew up loving baseball, but ...read more

Why are left-handers called “southpaws”?

The “American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language” cites the conventional wisdom that the word “southpaw” originated “from the practice in baseball of arranging the diamond with the batter facing east to avoid the afternoon sun. A left-handed pitcher facing west would ...read more

The Black Sox Baseball Scandal, 95 Years Ago

Just how the “Big Fix” of 1919 played out remains a subject of considerable debate among baseball historians. Accounts differ, but the scheme may have first materialized a few weeks before the World Series, when White Sox first baseman C. Arnold “Chick” Gandil and a gambler named ...read more

10 Things You May Not Know About Babe Ruth

1. Ruth first gained fame as a pitcher.Although best remembered for swatting a prodigious 714 home runs and slugging .690, which remains a major-league record, Ruth was one of baseball’s most dominant left-handed pitchers in the 1910s. He won 89 games in six seasons with the ...read more

When Hank Aaron Passed the Babe

As Hank Aaron strode to the plate, the sellout crowd of 53,775 packed into Atlanta-Fulton County Stadium rose as one. All across the United States, baseball fans stopped whatever they were doing and crouched a little closer to their glowing television screens. The umpire reached ...read more

11 Things You May Not Know About Jackie Robinson

1. Robinson’s older brother was a silver medalist at the Olympics. During Jackie Robinson’s youth in California, his older brother Mack was a star sprinter on the Pasadena Junior College track team. Despite struggling with a heart condition, Mack Robinson later clinched a spot on ...read more

Who Invented Baseball?

You may have heard that a young man named Abner Doubleday invented the game known as baseball in Cooperstown, New York, during the summer of 1839. Doubleday then went on to become a Civil War hero, while baseball became America’s beloved national pastime. Not only is that story ...read more

8 Surprising Fenway Park Events

1. June 6, 1914: A Pachyderm PartyBoston schoolchildren donated their pennies, nickels and dimes in 1914 to purchase three circus elephants for the city’s zoo, and Fenway Park was the venue for their coming-out party. A crowd small in stature, but not in size, turned out to ...read more

The History of Ballpark Food

Hot DogsThe world’s first sausage may have been made as far back as 64 A.D., when Emperor Nero Claudius Caesar’s cook, Gaius, stuffed pig intestines with ground meat in a flash of culinary inspiration. After eating the sausage, the emperor is said to have declared, “I have ...read more

Baseball Opening Day Fun Facts

Opening day snowball fightOn Opening Day in 1907, the New York Giants faced off against the Phillies at New York City’s Polo Grounds after a heavy snowstorm. When the Giants fell behind, disgruntled fans began flinging snowballs onto the field, forcing the umpire to call a ...read more

Major League Baseball’s first All-Star Game is held

On July 6, 1933, Major League Baseball’s first All-Star Game took place at Chicago’s Comiskey Park. The brainchild of a determined sports editor, the event was designed to bolster the sport and improve its reputation during the darkest years of the Great Depression. Originally ...read more


Baseball


Photograph of a young boy in a baseball uniform holding a baseball bat. The photograph was possibly

Baseball originated before the American Civil War in the eastern portion of the United States. During the Civil War, it became popular among soldiers serving in the Union army, and it grabbed the nation's fascination after the war. It remains unclear when baseball first appeared in Ohio, but the first game probably occurred before the Civil War. On July 9, 1859, a Cleveland newspaper reported that a game occurred in Ashtabula County. The first team to one hundred "scores" was declared the winner. It is unclear whether or not the game resembled modern baseball.

The first teams to clearly utilize rules similar to modern-day baseball originated in the late 1860s. Cleveland had a team, the Forest City Club, by 1865. That year they played the Penfield Club of Oberlin, Ohio. Oberlin won sixty-seven to twenty-eight. Defense clearly was not a priority in early games. The games could also be violent. In the Oberlin-Cleveland game, one player lost three teeth and another one sprained his arm. By the end of 1866, more than a dozen clubs operated in Cleveland. In Cincinnati, the Live Oak Baseball Club, the Buckeye Baseball Club, and the Cincinnati Baseball Club all adopted more modern rules in 1866. Columbus also had a team -- the Capital Club. The Forest City Club of Cleveland defeated the Capital Club seventy-two to forty-four in 1866. Several thousand spectators were in attendance.

Cincinnati boasted the first professional baseball team in United States history, the Cincinnati Red Stockings. The team was named after the red stockings that the players wore with their uniforms. It was founded in 1867, and the team had four paid players on the roster in 1868. By 1869, every player on the team was paid, including George Wright, the shortstop, who earned the highest salary of 1,400 dollars. From September 1868 until June 1870, the Red Stockings never lost a game. The Brooklyn Atlantics finally defeated the Red Stockings on June 14, 1870, by a single run in eleven innings. The Red Stockings ceased to exist after 1870. Other cities began to support professional teams, offering Red Stockings players more money than the Cincinnati club could afford to pay.

In 1881, the Cincinnati Red Stockings were reformed and joined with numerous other teams, including the Forest City team of Cleveland, to create the National Association of Professional Baseball. In 1886, this association became the National League. In 1892, the Western Association was formed in Cincinnati. This association eventually became the modern-day American League.

Ohio has continued to play an important role in professional baseball. Ohio boasted two professional teams, the Cleveland Indians and the Cincinnati Reds, for much of the twentieth century. The Indians won the pennant in both 1948 and 1954 and then experienced several decades of poor showings. During the 1990s, the Indians' performance on the ball field improved dramatically, causing northern Ohioans to flock to the ballpark. The Indians also played an important role in integrating professional baseball, hiring Larry Doby, the first African American to play in the American League. The Indians also hired African Americans like Satchel Paige as a player and Frank Robinson as manager. The Reds dominated the 1970s, winning the National League pennant in 1970, 1972-1973, 1975-1976, and 1979. The team flourished with players like Pete Rose, Johnny Bench, and Joe Morgan. During the 1990s, the team struggled.


League History

The American Association is one of the great names in the history of professional baseball leagues in the United States. The first American Association was formed in 1902 as an independent minor league for the larger cities in the midwestern area of the U.S. The original members of the league were the St. Paul Apostles, the Minneapolis Millers, the Kansas City Cowboys, the Toledo Mud Hens, the Indianapolis Indians, the Louisville Colonels, the Milwaukee Brewers, and the Columbus (OH) Senators. The following year (1903), the American Association joined the National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues (the minor league organization), and for the next half century the league was arguably the most influential minor league in all of baseball. Great players such as Ted Williams, Mickey Mantle, Willie Mays and more starred in league ballparks, and the Junior World Series was a major event in the U.S. sporting world. In 1944 more than 50,000 fans showed up for a crucial JWS game between Louisville and Baltimore.

In 1953 major league baseball saw the first movement of franchises since the turn of the century as the Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee. Over the next decade the American Association would also lose Kansas City, Minneapolis, and St. Paul to major league baseball. At the same time, minor league baseball was undergoing a serious decline. In earlier years, minor league teams could exist without a major league working agreement, but the economics of minor league baseball had changed. It was now imperative to have a major league agreement for a team’s survival, but the major leagues were streamlining their list of affiliates. The advent of television, air conditioning, and the suburbs were also a factor in the decline of the minors, and in 1963, the American Association would close its doors.

The surviving teams were absorbed by the Pacific Coast League and the International League, the remaining AAA leagues. In 1969 the American Association returned as the expansion of major league baseball created a need for more Class AAA farm clubs. The original six members of the returning Association were the Indianapolis Indians, the Omaha Royals, the Tulsa Oilers, the Denver Bears, the Iowa Oaks, and the Oklahoma City 89ers. The following year the league would go to eight clubs with the addition of Wichita and Evansville. The league remained fairly stable until 1997 when minor league baseball decided to realign and the American Association was again dropped. As in the prior demise of the league, teams would be absorbed by the other two AAA leagues.

In the fall of 2005 the possibility of a revival of the American Association was discussed. Teams from two independent leagues, the Northern League and the Central League proposed coming together to form a “super” independent league. Two of the cities in the discussions, St. Paul and Ft. Worth, had been members of the old American Association, and the geography was similar to that of the original league. With the history and precedent set by its namesake, the American Association of Independent Professional Baseball Leagues was formed on October 11, 2005. The expectations were strong for the new league, and the name “American Association” was again part of the great history of professional baseball. In 2008, Wichita rejoined the league as an expansion team along with Grand Prairie, TX. In 2011 Amarillo replaced Pensacola and the league expanded by four teams, adding the Fargo-Moorhead RedHawks, Gary SouthShore RailCats, Kansas City T-Bones and Winnipeg Goldeyes.

The league expanded to suburban Chicago in 2018 with the addition of the Chicago Dogs, whose home stadium is Impact Field, a new $60 million facility in Rosemont, IL. In 2019, the American Association expanded again, this time to Franklin, WI as the Milwaukee Milkmen joined the circuit. The club opened the newly constructed $25M Franklin Field, which is part of the Ballpark Commons development in Franklin.

The American Association expanded its footprint in Texas in 2017 with the addition of the Cleburne Railroaders. The Railroaders play at The Depot, a $20.7M stadium in Cleburne. In 2021, the American Association of Professional Baseball will be playing with 11 teams and one travel team.


Baseball

Baseball is a bat and ball game which is played mainly in the USA, Japan, and Latin America. The object for each nine-person team is to score as many runs as possible during its turn at bat, and to prevent the other team from doing so during its turn in the field.

Recent Baseball News


    High school baseball: Southern California Regional results
    Times Staff. Los Angeles Times. Saturday, 26 Jun 2021 21:59:37 -0400.

The sport of baseball has long been known as "America's favorite pastime." Almost everyone in America has participated in the game of baseball, from being a spectator at a professional game, playing on a recreational or varsity league team, or just joining in an impromptu backyard game of ball. In addition to players, all that is needed is a wooden or aluminum bat, baseball gloves, and 4 objects placed in a diamond shape at 90 degree angles to serve as home plate, 1st base, 2nd base, and 3rd base.

The first form of baseball may have been a game called "Stool Ball," played in the Middle Ages. Each batter tried to hit a pitched ball and run around three stools to the "homestool." In the seventeenth century, this game evolved into a game called "rounders," which utilized a diamond shaped field. The colonists in America played this game, which soon came to be known as "town ball," because every town had their own set of rules. Today, baseball's popularity is growing rapidly. The World Baseball Softball Confederation (WBSC) is recognized by the International Olympic Committee, and works to develop and expand this sport all over the world.

A regulation game of baseball is played nine to a side, with each team consisting of a pitcher, a catcher, first, second, and third basemen, shortstop, and right, center and left fielders. The pitcher and catcher comprise the battery first, second, third, and shortstop players comprise the infield, and right, center and left fielders comprise the outfield. Each team takes a turn at bat, and the goal is to score runs by moving around the four bases. The bases are located at the angles of a 90 foot square (also known as a baseball diamond). Foul lines begin at home plate and extend past first and third base for the entire length of the field.

Each team attempts to score runs against the other team the team with the most runs after nine innings wins the game. An inning is divided in half, with each team getting a turn at bat and in the field. For each turn at bat, the team is allowed three "outs" before they must take up defensive position in the field. A batter is called "out" when the pitcher gets three "strikes" on him. A strike is a pitch that crosses home plate in the "strike zone" or a pitch that is swung at and missed, or is hit into foul territory. A batter will "fly out" if he hits the ball into fair or foul territory and it is caught by an opponent before hitting the ground. A batter can be thrown out when he hits the ball and it is retrieved by an opposing team member and thrown to the first baseman, who then catches it and steps on first base before the batter reaches it. A runner can be out when the catcher or a baseman receives the ball and tags the plate or the respective base before he gets there. A runner may be tagged with the ball while traveling between bases, or attempting to "steal" a base this constitutes an automatic out.

The pitcher throws the ball toward the catcher from a slightly raised mound located directly between home and second base, at a distance of 60 feet, 6 inches from home plate. The goal of each batter is to reach base safely after hitting the ball into fair territory. If he reaches first base, the hit is known as a "single" a second base hit is a "double" and a third base hit a "triple." A hit that enables him to run around all three bases and come home is known as a "home-run," and scores a point for his team. A home-run may also be achieved by hitting a fair ball over the outfield fence. A batter may be awarded first base if the pitcher delivers four "balls," which are pitches that do not pass through the strike-zone. He may also move to first base if hit by a pitched ball, or if the catcher interferes when he swings the bat. It is the pitcher's goal to deliver the ball with accuracy, and with varying speeds and trajectories, in order to "strike-out" the batter.

When a batter safely reaches base, he must depend on his teammates to hit the ball in such a way that he can advance. For example, he may be able to advance from first to second base on a hit that allowed the batter to take first. He may also attempt to "steal" a base, which occurs when he runs for the next base as the pitcher releases the ball, and reaches the intended base before being tagged out. An umpire-in-chief is positioned directly behind the catcher and determines balls and strikes. One or more base umpires determine whether runners are safe or out from the other three bases.

A regulation baseball weighs from 5 to 5.25 ounces and is 9 to 9.5 inches in circumference. It is made of a cork and rubber center wound with woolen yarn and covered with horsehide. (Softball is a modified version of baseball, and uses a larger ball.) The baseball bat is a smooth, round, tapered piece of hardwood in professional baseball, although an aluminum bat can also be used. The bat measures no more than 2.75 inches in diameter at the thickest part, and is no more than 42 inches long.

First basemen wear a special large leather mitt (glove), and catchers use a large heavily padded leather mitt as well. The basemen, infield, and outfield players use similar leather gloves which may be made for right or left-handers. The catcher must also wear a chest protector, shin guards, and a metal mask. Players wear shoes with cleats and plastic helmets while batting and running bases to protect against wayward balls. Professional baseball teams, as well as school and recreational teams have uniforms, which often consist of polyester/rayon/cotton blend pants and short-sleeve button-down shirts, as well as baseball hats in the teams' colors. Each player usually has a number and last name embroidered on the back of the shirt for identification. They may also wear shin guards for protection.


Baseball - HISTORY

All you need to know about New Jersey sports history.

BASEBALL in New Jersey

The definitive history.

If you believe the old story, organized baseball “started” in New Jersey in 1846. On June 19th the Knickerbocker Club played the New York Nine in Hoboken. The two clubs met for what many consider to be the first official game between two teams. They played at Elysian Fields, a wide expanse of green across the Hudson from downtown New York. The Knickerbockers had been using the field for a year for their baseball playing, but this marked the first time they competed against another club. Somewhat ironically, the New York Nine included several former Knickerbockers who had quit the club because they objected to traveling so far to play baseball. The organizer of the game was Alexander Cartwright, regarded by many as the Father of Baseball.

The spot in Hoboken was perfect for baseball—a large, flat ground reachable with minimal effort and expense from New York City. In the 1860s, baseball games at the Elysian Fields drew crowds of 10,000 or more. It was also a favorite for cricket matches. At the time, cricket was still the more popular sport among adults. However, baseball was closing the gap. It evolved from an assortment of 18th century children’s games and was widely played by adults by the 1830s. In 1831, a group of young men from Philadelphia met regularly across the river, in Camden, to play Townball. This pastime was similar to baseball, but was played on a square field, with the batter located between the first and fourth base. Townball persisted for several decades in New Jersey and, especially, in New England, where it was known as the “Massachusetts Game.” The "New York Game" played by the Knickerbockers eventually won out Base-Ball (as it was often written in the 1800s) was more fun to play and more interesting to watch.

The firstbaseball teams sprang from groups of men who were linked professionally or socially. A club of bank clerks or engineers might field a team. Many fire companies played baseball to pass the time between blazes.

The first official teams in New Jersey were formed in the mid-1850s. The earliest came from Newark and Jersey City. A team called the Fear Nots played in Hudson City, which later became Jersey City Heights. By the end of the decade there were active club teams in Elizabeth, Hoboken, New Brunswick, Orange, Princeton, Somerville and Trenton. In the 1860s, clubs were formed in Belvidere, Bergen, Camden, Englewood, Irvington, Paterson and Rahway.

As mid-19th century travel tended to be time-consuming and expensive, most of the ball-playing was done among club members. However, when two did meet it was quite an event. The contest would be part of an entire day of activities, including an extravagant dinner. In these games, the best players did not always man the most important positions. The more senior club members got to choose where they fielded and batted. The games were competitive, but not in the modern sense. “Hard-nosed” baseball would not come until after the Civil War.

In 1857, 16 of the nation’s strongest baseball clubs banded together to form the National Association of Base Ball Players. When member clubs competed they abided by the same set or rules and conduct. In 1858, the association welcomed its first New Jersey team, the Liberty Club of New Brunswick. In 1859, a club from Trenton joined. Between 1860 and 1870, several clubs from Newark joined the NABBP, including the Eurekas, Adriatics, Americus, Excelsiors, and Actives.

College baseball gained an important foothold during the years of the Civil War. Many students at northern schools delayed their participation in the military until after graduation, or avoided it altogether. This enabled baseball clubs to play and practice together at a time when other amateur teams often could not. The Nassau Baseball Club at Princeton University (then the College of New Jersey) became something of a juggernaut. A student named L.W. Mudge—who had gained some renown as a ball player in his native Brooklyn—whipped the Nassau nine into shape with the help of some fellow Brooklynites and soon they were playing, and beating, the top clubs in New York, New Jersey and Phialdelphia. In September 1863, they won three of four games against Brooklyn's best, defeating Excelsiors, Stars and Resolutes, while falling to the Atlantics.

During the 1850s and 1860s, some baseball clubs were known to compensate their best players. Sometimes the payment was made in cash, other times in goods or services. By the end of the 1860s, “professionalism” had become common. Baseball had changed. Soldiers returning from the life-and-death struggle of the war craved action and excitement. They played to win, and the best base-ballers expected to be paid for their services. Very rapidly, there was a separation between the amateur clubs that clung to the old ways, and “teams” that charged admission (or at least passed the hat) at their games.

New Jersey’s first all-professional baseball team was the Elizabeth Resolutes. They competed for one season (1873) in the National Association of Professional Baseball Players. The Association operated from 1871 to 1875. It was the country’s first pro league, with teams from New England to the Midwest. The Association was structured to favor professional ball players, and was a precursor to the National League, which formed in 1876 and still operates today. The National League was formed to serve the interests of baseball owners.

The Resolutes played just 23 league games, and lost 21 before folding. Their manager and catcher was Doug Allison (right), a player largely forgotten by history. In his time he was very famous. Allison was the catcher on the famous 1869 Cincinnati Red Stockings, who helped to popularize baseball after the Civil War. Allison was the first player to “perfect” the skills demanded of the catcher. Prior to that, catcher was regarded as a place an exhausted or injured player could rest.

The pro team with the most staying power was the Jersey City Skeeters . The club formed around the time of the Civil War and played on and off in various minor leagues until the Depression. The Skeeters were named after the infernal bugs that rose in clouds from the New Jersey swamps. In 1903, the Skeeters won their first 18 games and went on to cop the Eastern League crown. It was a fitting Thank You to the town, which had constructed a new baseball stadium for them the year before.

The best baseball being played in New Jersey during the late 1800s and early 1900s may have been on the college level. Princeton formed its first baseball team in 1858, making it the school’s oldest organized sport. Its first intercollegiate match was against Williams College in 1864. The Tigers’ first star was Joe Mann. He mastered the curve ball after receiving a lesson from professional star Candy Cummings—and used it to no-hit Yale in 1875. Another Princeton innovator was Bill Schenck. In an 1880 game against Harvard the catcher stuffed copies of the Princetonian under his uniform to help absorb the impact of foul tips. It was one of the first recorded uses of a chest protector.

Princeton’s first full-time baseball coach was Boileryard Clarke (left), the catcher on the great Baltimore Oriole teams of the 1890s. Though few Princeton players went on to play professionally (pro baseball was considered unsuitable for educated men), one who did was Moe Berg. Berg was a so-so catcher during 15 years in the majors Casey Stengel once said, “Berg could speak eight languages but couldn’t hit in any of ’em.” Nevertheless, he was a member of a 1934 All-Star team that toured Japan. His “home movies” of Tokyo harbor and its factories were later used to plan bombing raids during World War II. Berg also did some spying for the U.S. government in Switzerland during the war.

In 1915, New Jersey finally got its first “major league” team, the Newark Peppers . They played exactly one year during the final season of the Federal League, an upstart circuit that competed with the National and American Leagues. The Peppers were owned by Harry Sinclair, an Oklahoma oil baron who wanted to start a team in New York City. The roster was made up of players from the previous year’s Federal League champions, the Indianapolis Hoosiers. The plan was to win the 1915 pennant, move across the Hudson, and then outdraw the Yankees, Giants and Dodgers.

Sinclair was one of the richest men in America, and for that single season a hands- on owner in the mold of George Steinbrenner. Though he only planned to stay in New Jersey for a year, Sinclair had a brand new stadium constructed across the Passaic River in Harrison, within walking distance of downtown Newark. He offered John McGraw the unheard-of sum of $100,000 to leave the Giants and become his manager. McGraw turned him down. Nonetheless, the Peppers opened their season to a standing room only crowd. The team featured two future Hall of Famers, Edd Roush (left) and Bill McKechnie. Germany Schaefer, a crowd-pleasing veteran, was also on the team. The pitching staff was led by Ed Reulbach, one of the best players not in the Hall of Fame.

Despite all of this talent, the Peppers finished in fifth place. The Federal League went out of business after the season. In the final days of the league, Sinclair (right), a brilliant businessman, used his money and power to gobble up anything of value (most notably player contracts) and was probably the only person to turn a profit on the Federal League adventure. He briefly toyed with the idea of buying the Giants, but decided to stick to oil wells and returned to Oklahoma. As for Newark, it not only lost the Peppers but also the Indians, an International League team. Sinclair’s aggressive promotions convinced them to move to Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. The Indians had been league champions just two seasons earlier.

After the Federal League left New Jersey, the top tier of organized baseball in the Garden State was the International League—which returned to Jersey City in 1918 and to Newark in 1926. The Jersey City team did not survive the Depression, but the N ewark Bears thrived as the top farm team of the Yankees. Playing their home games at Ruppert Stadium in the current-day Ironbound section of the city, the Bears won the IL pennant seven times between 1932 and 1942, topping 100 victories five times. The 1937 club is considered one of the best minor-league teams ever.

Ironically, the 1937 Bears might not have been the best team in Newark—or even in their own stadium! One year earlier, two Negro League teams—the Newark Dodgers and Brooklyn Eagles—merged to create the Newark Eagles . The Eagles were owned and operated by Effa Manley, the first woman to serve in this dual capacity for a professional sports team. She later became the first woman inducted into the Baseball Hall of Fame. When the Bears were on the road, the Eagles—who barnstormed in addition to playing league games—would play their home games in Ruppert Stadium. The 1937 Eagles featured the “Million Dollar Infield” of Ray Dandridge, Willie Wells, Dick Seay and Mule Suttles. The outfield starred Jimmie Crutchfield and the pitching staff was anchored by Speed McDuffie and Leon Day.

New Jersey did see major league ball again, in 1956 and 1957. The Brooklyn Dodgers played one “home game” against each of the other seven National League teams in the Garden State during those seasons. The venue was Roosevelt Stadium, which opened in Jersey City in 1937. Roosevelt Stadium was home to the International League’s Jersey City Giants until 1950, and then served as home field for farm teams of the Reds (1960 & 1961), Indians (1977) and A’s (1978).

When the Reds were tenants, the team (called the Jersey City Jerseys) featured some of the top young Latino stars of the day, including Mike Cuellar, Cookie Rojas, Chico Cardenas, Vic Davalillo and Julian Javier. The Jerseys had previously played in Havana as the Sugar Kings, but were hastily relocated by the Reds organization after Fidel Castro nationalized American-owned businesses in Cuba. The most famous baseball event in Roosevelt Stadium occurred in 1946, when Jackie Robinson played his first game as a member of the Montreal Royals—one year before breaking the color barrier with the Dodgers.

By the 1960s, pro baseball had become a more acceptable occupation for a college grad, and New Jersey’s institutions of higher learning produced some good ones over the next 50 years, including Jeff Torborg , Eric Young and David DeJesus ( Rutgers ), Chris Young and Will Venable ( Princeton ), Ed Halicki (Monmouth College), Al Downing and Jack Armstrong (Rider College), Mark Leiter (Ramapo College), and Johnny Briggs , Rick Cerone , Craig Biggio , Mo Vaughn, John Valentin and Matt Morris ( Seton Hall ).Brookdale, a community college in Monmouth County, produced John Montefusco , who went on to be named NL Rookie of the Year.

During the 1970s and 1980s, minor league baseball went into a period of decline. Its revival began in the 1990s. From 1994 through 2002, the St. Louis Cardinals operated a farm team in Skylands Park in Augusta, in the northwest corner of the state. They were followed by the Sussex Skyhawks, who played in Augusta from 2006 through 2010.

In 1994, the Detroit Tigers moved their Eastern League farm team to Trenton and renamed it the Thunder. The Thunder later became affiliated with the Red Sox and Yankees. Trenton quickly became one of the great success stories of minor league baseball, drawing more than 500,000 fans a season several times. Trenton had been without pro baseball for nearly 50 years after having hosted minor-league clubs dating back as far as the 1880s. In 1950, Trenton’s final season as a farm club of the Giants, Willie Mays (left) played center field for the team. In one famous game, he made a barehanded catch to rob an enemy hitter of a home run. Mays often said it was the best defensive play he ever made.

In the late 1990s, two independent minor league franchises moved into New Jersey stadiums. The New Jersey Jackals play in Little Falls and the Newark Bears play in downtown Newark. The Jackals won the Northern League championship in 1998, 2001, 2002 and 2004. The Bears, who borrowed the name of the city’s famous team of the 1930s and 40s, played their inaugural season in 1999. Both teams struggled financially. The team in Newark did not take the field for the 2014 season and eventually went out of business, leaving their new stadium to go to seed.

The Phillies had better luck in the Garden State. In 2001, they moved their Class-A minor league team from North Carolina to Lakewood and renamed them the Blue Claws. Playing in a family-friendly stadium, the team consistently drew sellout crowds regardless of their performance on the field. That being said, there was never a lack of talent on the club. The first Blue Claw to reach the majors was Ryan Howard (right). He was named National League Rookie of the Year in 2005 and Most Valuable Player in 2006.

The 2016 season marked a milestone in New Jersey baseball history. Mike Trout of Millville—the first NJ-born player to win the AL MVP award—was honored for the second time, along with Rick Porcello of Morristown, who was named the AL Cy Young Award winner. It was the first AL Cy Young for a NJ-born player, and obviously the first time a pair of New Jerseyans won major baseball awards in the same season.

BASEBALL ALL-STARS BORN IN NEW JERSEY

• Click on a name to read a bio.

Jack Armstrong (Englewood) 1990

Andrew Bailey (Voorhees) 2009–10

Hank Borowy (Bloomfield) 1944

Jim Bouton (Newark) 1963

Brad Brach (Freehold) 2016

George Case (Trenton) 1939, 1943-44 Doc Cramer

Sean Casey (Willingboro) 1999, 2001 & 2004

Doc Cramer (Beach Haven) 1935 & 1937-40

Joe Cunningham (Paterson) 1959 (1 & 2)

Al Downing (Trenton)) 1967

Todd Frazier (Point Pleasant) 2014–15

Goose Goslin (Salem) 1936

Jeffrey Hammonds (Plainfield) 2000

Erik Hanson (Kinnelon) 1995

Frankie Hayes (Jamesburg) 1939-41, 1944 & 1946

Jason Heyward (Ridgewood) 2010

Derek Jeter (Pequannock) 1998-2002, 2004 & 2006-12 & 2014 Joe Medwick

Billy Johnson (Montclair) 1947

Eddie Kasko (Linden) 1961 (1 & 2)

Johnny Kucks (Hoboken) 1956

Al Leiter (Toms River) 1996 & 2000

Joe Medwick (Carteret) 1934-42 & 1944

Andy Messersmith (Toms River) 1971 & 1974-76

John Montefusco (Long Branch) 1976

Ray Narleski (Camden) 1956 & 1958

Don Newcombe (Madison) 1949-51 & 1955

Jose Rosado (Newark) 1997 & 1999

Johnny Romano (Paterson) 1961 (1 & 2) & 1962 (1 & 2)

Hector Santiago (Newark) 2015 Johnny Vander Meer

Eddie Smith (Mansfield) 1941–42

Mike Trout (Millville) 2011–18

Hal Wagner (East Riverton) 1942 & 1946

Johnny Vander Meer (Prospect Park) 1938-39 & 1942-43

Eric Young (New Brunswick) 1996

Frankie Zak (Passaic) 1944

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All images on this site are from the collection of the authors. They are used for educational and informational purposes and are subject to standard copyright laws.


Civil War baseball

One of the earliest images of baseball is this hand colored lithograph of Union prisoners at Salisbury Confederate Prison. It is part of the Harry T. Peters “America on Stone” Lithography Collection at the National Museum of American History. Though various forms of baseball were played in England and America for over a century prior to the Civil War, modern rules of the game were not developed and employed until the 1850s. The evolving Knickerbocker Code or rules had its origins in metropolitan New York in 1845. Union soldiers, more familiar with the game, introduced others, including Southerners and Westerners to baseball throughout the Civil War, resulting in thousands of soldiers learning the game. Upon returning home, the game spread to friends and neighbors and soon the sport was played in every region of the country, solidifying its title as “The National Pastime."


Artist: Otto Botticher or Boetticher, Lithographic firm: Sarony, Major, & Knapp, Publisher: Goupil & Co., date drawn: mid 1862, published date: 1863, catalog no.: 60.3741

The baseball game pictured in this print was played at Salisbury Confederate Prison in North Carolina. Between December 9, 1861 and February 17, 1865, the prison housed 10,000-15,000 Union prisoners of war and other assorted detainees. The compound was designed to temporarily hold Union officers until they could be exchanged for Confederate troops. The facility was constructed around an empty 20 year-old brick three story cotton factory on 16 acres of land near a railroad line and the town of Salisbury. For the first couple of years of its existence, the prison had wells of sweet water, adequate medical facilities and sufficient food.

Soldiers’ diaries document the detainees’ daily routines and pastimes. Prisoners from the first half of 1862 noted that baseball games were played nearly every day, weather permitting. For the first couple of years, prisoners were also permitted to whittle, read, write letters, attend lectures, perform “theatrics,” play cards such as poker, and go fishing. Prisoners also gambled, as is evidenced by the dice game underway in the lower right corner of the print. Prisoners even published their own newspaper. Some prisoners were given town visitation privileges, so it was not uncommon for POWs to trade buttons and barter small personal items for fresh fruits and vegetables.

As the war continued, conditions began to deteriorate. After the summer of 1862, prisoner exchanges ceased. Records indicate that few Union prisoners were held in the prison in 1863 and early 1864, but the facility was used for Southern political prisoners, conscientious objectors, Confederate deserters and Southern civilians that ran afoul with the authorities. As the war dragged on, food and medicine became scarce for both prisoners and guards. By mid 1864, the prison filled up with Union POWs of every rank. Later that year, the camp exceeded its capacity and become overcrowded. Living conditions deteriorated further and life in Salisbury prison became as miserable as other prison camps. The mortality rate jumped from a low 2% to devastating 28% an estimated four to five thousand men died. Finally, on February 17, 1865, the Confederate and Union governments announced a general POW exchange and more than five thousand prisoners left Salisbury.

The baseball game pictured in the print was played during the late spring or summer of 1862, before living conditions deteriorated and when prisoners still had a good chance of leaving through a prisoner exchange. The baseball players on both teams are POWs, possibly men previously held in New Orleans and Tuscaloosa, as they were known to have played at the camp during this time. Although guards occasionally joined in the games, it is not reflected in this print. Spectators included townspeople as well as guards, and two guards (center and center far left) are pictured with guns. The town is depicted in the background beyond the stockade or wooden fence. A red, white and blue flag flying overhead in the center of the print is probably a Confederate regimental flag, though it could possibly be an error on the artist’s part with a reversal in the colors of the North Carolina Confederate flag. The prison compound included small cottages, a meat packing plant for the Confederate Army, a blacksmith shop and a small hospital.

The artist of the original watercolor sketch used for the lithograph was Otto Botticher or Boetticher (1811-1886). Botticher was a Prussian immigrant and held the rank of a Union captain when he was captured on March 29, 1862 around Manassas, Virginia. Prior to the war, Botticher had been a portrait painter in New York and New Jersey. He produced several paintings and lithographic plates of military subjects with the aid of early photography using daguerreotypes and ambrotypes. His work displays precision and excellent attention to detail, indicating he likely had formal draftsmanship training. Botticher may also have attended a military school and/or been a member of the army in Prussia, according to his biographer, Seward R. Osborne. He was known as Major Otto Botticher prior to the Civil War. In July 1861, Botticher joined the 68th New York Volunteer Infantry, known as the Cameron Rifles and was given the rank of captain. After his capture, he was sent first to Libby Prison near Richmond, where he sketched “Libby Prison- Union Prisoners at Richmond, Va.,” also produced by Sarony, Major & Knapp and Goupil, Co.. When he was transferred to Salisbury Prison, he produced the watercolor that was used to create this lithograph. He was released as a result of a prisoner exchange on September 30, 1862 at Aiken’s Landing, Virginia, when he was exchanged for a Confederate captain from Virginia’s 7th army. Botticher rejoined his regiment, serving as captain of Company B at the Battle of Chancellorsville. He was wounded at Gettysburg while serving with his regiment in the 11th Army Corps, and was discharged in June 1864, but achieved a brevet rank of lieutenant colonel with the New York State Volunteers in September 1865. After the war, Botticher continued as an artist, illustrator, and lithographer. He also worked as a consulate agent for the North German Union before dying in 1886.

Botticher’s watercolor sketch of the Salisbury Confederate Prison baseball game was used to create the lithographic print in 1863. The lithographic firm was Sarony, Major & Knapp of 449 Broadway, New York City. The firm was founded by Napoleon Sarony and Henry B. Major in 1846 Joseph F. Knapp joined the firm in 1857. Sarony, Major & Knapp earned a solid reputation for lithography and the company was especially known for its fine art chromolithography. Unfortunately, by the 1870s, the firm shifted focus to the more profitable area of advertising. It also expanded to become the conglomerate known as the American Lithographic Company, successfully producing calendars, advertising cards, and posters. In 1930 they were bought out by Consolidated Graphics.

This print was produced and promoted 1863 by Goupil & Co. or Gouipil & Cie, a leading international publisher, printer, and fine art dealer. The company was founded in Paris by Jean Baptiste Michel Adolphe Goupil (1806-1893) and his wife Victorine Brincard. The Goupils widely promoted art and owned exclusive galleries as well as common sales rooms in New York, Paris, London, The Hague, Brussels, Berlin, and Vienna. Through various partners they had considerable resources and were able to capitalize on the interest in the newly popular American game. This ready-made market proved lucrative as the print sold well overseas. While the print does picture a pro-Southern view of leisure in a Confederate prison camp, it was also popular in the North for the images of Union officers and of course for the depiction of a baseball game in progress.

Debbie Schaefer-Jacobs is an associate curator in the Division of Home and Community Life at the National Museum of American History, and curator of the division’s Harry T. Peters America on Stone Lithography Collection.

(i) Thanks to Gretchen Witt, reference librarian for the Edith M. Clark History Room, Rowan County Public Library in Salisbury, North Carolina for her assistance. The library contains copies and originals of diaries and letters from numerous prisoners and guards. Authors at the prison during 1862 include: Josephus Clarkson, Col. John S. Crocker, William J. Crossley, Dr. Charles Carroll Gray, Captain John P. McGrier, and Adolphus Magnum.


Behold the dumbest play in baseball history

Full disclosure, I had never heard of Will Craig before today. Having not done fantasy baseball for a few years, admittedly, there are a lot of baseball players I haven't heard of. But I know who he is now—and that's not a good thing for the Pittsburgh Pirates first baseman.

That's because on Thursday, Will was responsible for the dumbest play in Major League Baseball history. This is not an exagerration. You'd have to go to a tee ball game to find something dumber. And even then, this might still be the dumbest play you'd see.

OK, let's set the stage. The Pirates are in the field for the top of the third inning while the Chicago Cubs bat. There's a runner on second with two outs and Javier Baez hits a ground ball to third. Should be the end of the inning, right? Wrong.

Pirates third baseman Erik Gonzalez pulls Craig off the bag with a wide throw, but it still beats Baez easily. All Craig has to do is go step on the bag. Instead, he decides to chase Baez, who starts going back toward home plate. We'd call this a smart baserunning move except this NEVER SHOULD HAVE WORKED! And yet, it did.

Craig took the bait, went after Baez, then when the runner on second was heading home, he flipped to his catcher, but it was too late. Again, he could have let that runner score! As long as he just touched first base before Baez it's the end of the inning! Instead, by the time the entire sequence was over, the Cubs had stolen a run and Baez was at second base. Unbelievable. Check it out:

No, I have not seen anything like this, MLB Twitter handle. You know why? Because it's the dumbest play in baseball history! Seriously, WTF? How does this happen? At the MAJOR LEAGUE level? Absolutely wild.

Anyway, tough day for Will Craig. Baseball fans are going to be seeing that one for a long time.


Baseball - HISTORY

Home of The Babe and the Baltimore Chop and birthplace of “Hit ‘em where they ain’t,” in Maryland, you’re never further than a long fly ball from some baseball history. Trace the roots of the Negro Leagues and sandlots, follow your favorite players from the farm to the bigs, it’s all here and so close together. So pack up and track down these hidden diamonds of baseball history. We guarantee your trip will be in the win column!

  • 1 Visit Babe Ruth’s Birthplace in Baltimore
  • 2 Explore the Negro Leagues Baseball in Owings Mills
  • 3 Grab a Beer at Old Oriole Park in Baltimore
  • 4 Visit the Jimmie Foxx Museum in Suldersville
  • 5 See the Bill “Swish” Nicholson Statue in Chestertown
  • 6 See the 1931 MVP Award of the Celebrated Southpaw, Lefty Grove
  • 7 Find the Walter Johnson Memorial, the Last Piece of Griffith Stadium, in Bethesda
  • 8 Experience the Baseball-Crazy Shore at the Eastern Shore Baseball Hall of Fame in Salisbury
  • 9 Get Up Close to Gold Gloves, MVPs, and World Series Trophies at Camden Yards in Baltimore
  • 10 Celebrate the Sandlot Era with the Hot Sox in Galesville
  • 11 Be there as Baseball History is Written at an Orioles Game or with One of Maryland’s Minor League Teams

New York’s old Yankee Stadium may have been “The House that Ruth Built,” but Baltimore’s Camden Yards may be the house that Ruth haunts. The Babe’s family owned a bar in what is now centerfield of Camden Yards, and Ruth was born just a long fly ball from the stadium. Now preserved the Babe Ruth Birthplace & Museum, the rowhouse at 216 Emory Street was the Sultan of Swat’s childhood home. So after a game at “The Yard,” make sure to stop at the Babe Ruth statue out front, then follow the trail of 60 painted baseballs to the home of the great Bambino.

Named for Baltimore Elite Giants legend Hubert “Bert” Simmons, the Hubert V. Simmons Museum of Negro Leagues Baseball opens a window onto a part of baseball history many have forgotten. Before Jackie Robinson broke the color barrier, there were two major leagues, one for white players, another for African-American. This free, three-story museum in the Owings Mills Branch of the Baltimore County Public Library is a must-stop for any baseball fan. Experience the amazing courage, remarkable skill, and downright incredible baseball of the Negro Leagues at this compelling museum.

A stop at Peabody Heights Brewery is always a great idea, even if you’re not a fan of America’s pastime. But for beer AND baseball fans, Peabody Heights goes from a home run to a grand slam. Built on the site of the Old Oriole Park, Babe Ruth himself played as a member of the minor-league Orioles who called the stadium home from 1916-1944. Across the street was the site of an even older Oriole Park where Wee Willie Keeler perfected the Baltimore Chop and “hit ‘em where they aint,” for the original National League Orioles who won three pennants before the turn of the last century. If that’s not enough baseball history, the site is just a few blocks from the site of Memorial Stadium where the O’s played from 1951-1991. If you listen carefully, you might still hear “The Roar from 34!”

Known as “Double X” or simply, “The Beast,” Jimmie Foxx was most feared right-handed hitter of his time. Foxx won three MVP awards (1932, 1933, and 1938), picked up a triple crown (1933), won a pair of World Series Championships with the Philadelphia A’s (1929 and 1930) on his way to 534 home runs and immortalization in the Baseball Hall of Fame. But you don’t have to go to Cooperstown to get to know this legend of the diamond. Jimmie’s home town of Suldersville remembers its favorite son with a life-sized statue of the slugger and a miniature Jimmie Foxx Museum inside the Suldersville Train Station Museum. The museum also offers a great look back to the age of rail that carried the greats of baseballs golden age around the country.

Bill Nicholson may not be a household name anymore, but in Chestertown, he’s still a beloved legend. “Swish” played 16 years in the majors for the Chicago Cubs and Philadelphia Phillies and was such a feared batsman, he once drew an intentional walk with the bases loaded, a feat shared with only five other players in history. But what cemented his legacy as a Kent County hero was what he did after his time in the bigs. Swish bought a farm just outside town and moved back to Chestertown. So beloved was the old slugger that Kent County erected a statue of Swish in front of the Chestertown Visitors Center. It’s a great stop on your baseball pilgrimage!


Take Me Out To The Ballgame: A Historical Timeline Of Baseball

Our national pastime dates back just as far as our nation is old. Many remarkable events have happened over 200+ years. This timeline takes a look at baseball throughout its history as a sport. From amazing feats to barriers broken and everywhere in between, baseball has become an important part of our American culture and is recognized today as one of the world’s most popular sports. With such a storied past, who knows what the next 200 years will bring!

1791: Baseball’s earliest roots founded in a bylaw in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.

1839: Abner Doubleday is said to have invented the game of baseball in Cooperstown, New York.

1845: Alexander Joy Cartweight creates the rules of baseball.

1846: The Knickerbockers and a team of cricket players play in the first official game in New York City.

1866: Vassar College fields the first ever women’s baseball team.


Professionalism and the rise of the major leagues [ edit ]

In 1870, a schism formed between professional and amateur ballplayers. The NABBP split into two groups. The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players operated from 1871 through 1875, and is considered by some to have been the first major league. Its amateur counterpart disappeared after only a few years.

The professional National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs, which still exists, was established in 1876 after the National Association proved ineffective. The emphasis was now on "clubs" rather than "players". Clubs now had the ability to enforce player contracts, preventing players from jumping to higher-paying clubs. Clubs in turn were required to play their full schedule of games, rather than forfeiting games scheduled once out of the running for the league championship, as happened frequently under the National Association. A concerted effort was made to reduce the amount of gambling on games which was leaving the validity of results in doubt.

At the same time, a "gentlemen's agreement" was struck between the clubs which endeavored to bar non-white players from professional baseball, a bar which was in existence until 1947. It is a common misconception that Jackie Robinson was the first African-American major-league ballplayer he was actually only the first after a long gap. Moses Fleetwood Walker and his brother Welday Walker were unceremoniously dropped from major and minor-league rosters in the 1880s, as were other African-Americans in baseball. An unknown number of African-Americans played in the major leagues as Indians, or South or Central Americans. And a still larger number played in the minor leagues and on amateur teams as well. In the majors, however, it was not until Robinson (in the National League) and Larry Doby (in the American League) emergence that baseball would begin to remove its color bar.

The early years of the National League were nonetheless tumultuous, with threats from rival leagues and a rebellion by players against the hated "reserve clause", which restricted the free movement of players between clubs. Competitive leagues formed regularly, and also disbanded regularly. The most successful was the American Association (1881–1891), sometimes called the "beer and whiskey league" for its tolerance of the sale of alcoholic beverages to spectators. For several years, the National League and American Association champions met in a postseason championship series—the first attempt at a World Series.

The Union Association survived for only one season (1884), as did the Players League (1890), an attempt to return to the National Association structure of a league controlled by the players themselves. Both leagues are considered major leagues by many baseball researchers because of the perceived high caliber of play (for a brief time anyway) and the number of star players featured. However, some researchers have disputed the major league status of the Union Association. Franchises came and went, and the St. Louis club, which was deliberately "stacked" by the league's president (who owned that club), was the only club that was anywhere close to major league caliber.

There were dozens of leagues, large and small, at this time. So what made the National League major? Control of the major cities, particularly New York City, the edgy, emotional nerve center of baseball with several clubs. They had both the biggest national media distribution systems of the day, and the populations that could generate big enough revenues for teams to hire the best players in the country.

Many leagues, including the venerable Eastern League, survived in parallel with the National League. One, the Western League, founded in 1893, became aggressive. Its fiery leader Ban Johnson railed against the National League and promised that he would build a new league that would grab the best players and field the best teams. It began play in April 1894.

The teams were Detroit (the only league team that has not moved since), Grand Rapids, Indianapolis, Kansas City, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Sioux City and Toledo. Prior to the 1900 season, the league changed its name to the American League, moved several franchises to larger, strategic locations, and in 1901 declared its intent to operate as a major league.

The resulting bidding war for players led to widespread contract-breaking and legal hassles. One of the most famous involved star second baseman Napoleon Lajoie, who went across town in Philadelphia from the National League Phillies to the American League Athletics in 1901. Barred by a court injunction from playing baseball in the state of Pennsylvania the next year, Lajoie saw his contract traded to the Cleveland team he would play for and manage Cleveland for many years.

The war between the American and National also caused shock waves throughout the rest of the baseball world. The result was a meeting at the Leland Hotel in Chicago in 1901 of every other baseball league. On September 5 1901 Patrick T. Powers, president of the Eastern League formed the second National Association of Professional Baseball Leagues, the NABPL or "NA" for short. The design of the association was to maintain the other leagues' independence.

To call these leagues "minor" in these days would have been a poorly received mistake. The term 'minor' league did not come into vogue until the Great Depression and St. Louis Cardinals GM Branch Rickey's coordinated developmental program, the farm system, came into being in the 1930s. Still, these leagues needed money, and selling players to the more affluent National and American leagues sent them down the road that would strip the "in" from their independent status.

For Ban Johnson had other designs for the NA. While the NA continues to this day, he saw it as a tool to end threats from smaller rivals who might some day want to expand in other territories and threaten his league's dominance.

After 1902 both leagues and the NABPL signed a new National Agreement which achieved three things:

  • First and foremost, it governed player contracts that set up mechanisms to end the cross-league raids on rosters and reinforced the power of the hated reserve clause that kept players virtual slaves to their baseball masters.
  • Second, it led to the playing of a "World Series" in 1903 between the two major league champions. The first World Series was won by Boston of the American League.
  • Lastly, it established a system of control and dominance for the major leagues over the independents. There would not be another Ban Johnson-like rebellion from the ranks of leagues with smaller cities. Selling player contracts was rapidly becoming a staple business of the independent leagues. During the rough and tumble years of the American-National struggle, player contracts were violated at the independents as well: Players that the team had developed would sign deals with the National or American leagues without any form of compensation to the indy club.

The new agreement tied independent contracts to the reserve-clause national league contracts. Baseball players were a commodity, like cars. $5,000 bought your arm or your bat, and if you didn't like it, find someplace that would hire you. It set up a rough classification system for independent leagues that regulated the dollar value of contracts, the forerunner of the system refined by Rickey and used today.

It also gave the NA great power. Many independents walked away from the 1901 meeting. The deal with the NA punished those other indies who had not joined the NA and submitted to the will of the 'majors.' The NA also agreed to the deal to prevent more pilfering of players with little or no compensation for the players' development. Several leagues, seeing the writing on the wall, eventually joined the NA, which grew in size over the next several years.


Watch the video: Derek Jeter FULL Hall of Fame Speech. Yankees legend inducted into Baseball Hall of Fame


Comments:

  1. Vudokazahn

    This did not take out.

  2. Samular

    really fly away! we look forward to the release and will rock it !!!!!!

  3. Ormund

    I do not know how to whom, I liked it!



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