29 July 1941

29 July 1941

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29 July 1941



Far East

Chunking Incident: Japanese bomb a US gunboat

The Citizens Journal (Atlanta, Tex.), Vol. 62, No. 29, Ed. 1 Thursday, July 24, 1941

Weekly newspaper from Atlanta, Texas that includes local, state and national news along with extensive advertising.

Physical Description

eight pages : ill. page 22 x 16 in. Digitized from 35 mm. microfilm.

Creation Information


This newspaper is part of the collection entitled: Texas Digital Newspaper Program and was provided by the Atlanta Public Library to The Portal to Texas History, a digital repository hosted by the UNT Libraries. It has been viewed 80 times. More information about this issue can be viewed below.

People and organizations associated with either the creation of this newspaper or its content.




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Provided By

Atlanta Public Library

Named after the Georgia capital, Atlanta was founded in 1871 by the Texas and Pacific Railway in the northeast corner of Texas. Atlanta offers convenient access to cultural, educational, historical and recreational activities, and was the birthplace of Bessie Coleman, the first African-American and Native American female pilot.


“The British Empire shines afar,
It’s not as other empires are,
It isn’t merely – so it boasts –
A thing of parasites and hosts
Its parasites, if suck they must,
Suck only as A SACRED TRUST.”

”A party of great vested interests banded together in a formidable confederation corruption at home, aggression to cover it abroad, the trickery of tariff jugglery the tyranny of a well-oiled party machine, sentiment by the bucketful, patriotism and imperialism by the imperial pint an open hand at the public exchequer, an open door at the public house dear food for the millions, cheap labor for the millionaires. That is the policy which the Tory Party offers you.” (Winston Churchill, May 8, 1908.)

NB: Churchill is the leader of the Tory Party today.

Among Those Responsible for War

“The solid promise that we gave, not merely in the treaty itself but in a document which I took part in drafting and which was signed by M. Clemenceau on our behalf, that if Germany disarmed we should immediately follow her example, was not carried out, and there is no government that is more responsible for that than the present National Government which came into power in 1931 .

“They had the opportunity. Germany was prostrate. The creation of this terrible power in Germany, the spirit which is behind it, and what makes it so formidable at the present moment is due to the fact that we did not carry out our pledges.” (Lloyd George, May 9, 1940.)

“Hitler’s success and indeed his survival as a political force would not have been possible but for the lethargy and folly of the French and British Government since the war and especially in the last three years (1932-1935). (Winston Churchill, Great Contemporaries)

“The British Government is a traitor to democracy and to the interests of its own country. It prefers to drift on without an intelligible foreign policy, engage in competitive national rearmament, fatalistically moving toward an imperialist war of the old order. Then I suppose we shall be expected to support it.” (Herbert Morrison, Forward, July 3, 1937.)

”We must ascertain what are the contributing factors to the present world situation, and it will be found that possibly the biggest contributor is this country, and not Germany, for one of the most potent causes of world disorder has been our dominant financial policy.” (Ernest Bevin at Southport Labor Conference, 1939)

The War for Democracy

“Above all, the Italian genius has developed in the characteristic fascist institutions a highly authoritarian regime which, however, threatens neither religious nor economic freedom nor the security of other European nations.” (Lord Lloyd, The British Case)

“I have always said that if Great Britain were defeated in war I hoped we should find a Hitler to lead us back to our rightful position among nations.” (Winston Churchill, November 11, 1938.)

“If I had been an Italian I should have been wholeheartedly with you (the fascists) from start to finish in your triumphant struggle against the bestial appetites and passions of Leninism.” (Winston Churchill, January 21, 1927)

“Both (England and Japan) are ultimately striving for the same objective – a lasting peace and the preservation of our institutions from extraneous and subversive influences.” (Sir Robert Craigie, English Ambassador to Japan, London Times, March 29, 1940)

“Many of Herr Hitler’s social reforms, in spite of their complete disregard of personal liberty of thought, word or deed, were on highly advanced democratic lines . The great achievement of Hitler, who restored to the German nation its self-respect and its disciplined orderliness.” (Sir Neville Henderson, Government White Paper)

“The British Commonwealth has never allowed itself to be circumscribed by geographic limitations.” (London Times, November 5, 1940)

“We should never forget that our empire was won by the sword, that it has been preserved safe by the sword through generations, and in the last resort in the future it could only be safeguarded by the sword.” (Field Marshall Viscout Gort, VC, July 27, 1939)

The Fuehrer’s Original Friends

“I will say a word on an international aspect of fascism. Externally your movement has rendered a service to the whole world. Italy has provided the necessary antidote to the Russian poison. Hereafter, no great nation will be unprovided with an ultimate means of protection against cancerous growths.” (Winston Churchill, January 21, 1927)

“We certainly credit Hitler with honesty and sincerity. We believe in his purpose, stated over and over again, to seek an accommodation with us, and we accept to the full the implications of the Munich document.” (Lord Beaverbrook, Daily Express, October 31, 1938)

“Great numbers of people in England regard Herr Hitler as an ogre, but I would like to tell them how I have found him. He exudes good fellowship. He is simple, unaffected and obviously sincere. He is supremely intelligent. If you ask Herr Hitler a question he makes an instant reply full of information and eminent good sense. There is no man living whose promise given in regard to something of real moment I would sooner take.

“. a man of rare culture. His knowledge of music, painting and architecture is profound.

“Herr Hitler has a great liking for the English people. He regards the English and Germans as being of one race.” (Lord Rothermere, Daily Mail, May 1938)

“But if I may judge from my personal knowledge of Herr Hitler, peace and justice are the key-words of his policy.” (Sir Thomas Moore, MP, Sunday Dispatch, October 22, 1935)

War, Profit and Big Business

“Heaven help the Stock Exchange if it is peace.” (Financial News, August 29, 1939.)

“Investors in Lancashire cotton mill shares during the boom of twenty years ago . now find that their holdings have increased in value by more than $120,000,000. This new boom is due to the increased demand for yarn for government contracts since the outbreak of war.” (Sunday Express, December 10, 1939)

“Disarmament following the war would seem unlikely, and with an excellent goodwill established with a number of foreign powers, with the Admiralty and with individual owners of speed boats, the outlook is promising.” (Chairman of Vospers, Evening Standard, January 25, 1940)


1. The quotations in this article are all taken from Oliver Brown’s War for Freedom or Finance?, published by the British Independent Labor Party.

Composition of Soviet 28th and 29th Army in July/Aug 1941

Post by Kelvin » 20 Jun 2016, 08:59

In accordnace with Slaugherhouse, 28th Army comprised 30 and 33 Rifle Divisons but when in August 1941, she had 145 and 149th RD and 104 Tk divisision, exactly which units formed 28th Army initially ?

Also in the same book : 29th Army iniitally formed from five new Rifle Divisions, but I check OOB on Aug 1 1941, she only had 243, 252 RD and two cavalry divisions 50 & 53, so exactly what were her initial units ? five new RD or the data I quoted ?

Re: Composition of Soviet 28th and 29th Army in July/Aug 1941

Post by GregSingh » 20 Jun 2016, 10:54

28th - 30,33 Rifle Corps and some sources say 69th Motorized Division
29th - 245, 252, 254, 256 Rifle Divisions.

Later in July, 69th Motorized Division seemed to join 29th Army and 27th Mechanized Corps joined 28th Army.

But initial composition of 29th Army is missing from those tables?

Re: Composition of Soviet 28th and 29th Army in July/Aug 1941

Post by Art » 20 Jun 2016, 15:53

Re: Composition of Soviet 28th and 29th Army in July/Aug 1941

Post by Kelvin » 20 Jun 2016, 19:30

Re: Composition of Soviet 28th and 29th Army in July/Aug 1941

Post by Kelvin » 20 Jun 2016, 19:35

GregSingh wrote: Initially,

28th - 30,33 Rifle Corps and some sources say 69th Motorized Division
29th - 245, 252, 254, 256 Rifle Divisions.

Later in July, 69th Motorized Division seemed to join 29th Army and 27th Mechanized Corps joined 28th Army.

But initial composition of 29th Army is missing from those tables?

Re: Composition of Soviet 28th and 29th Army in July/Aug 1941

Post by Kelvin » 20 Jun 2016, 19:54

Hi, Art and GregSingh, I would like to ask for below was correct initial compostion of Soviet 30th Army :

242, 250 and 251 Rifle Divisons

But Slaugherhouse book mentions 30th Army initially had four RD on hand, I am not sure which one is correct, If she had fourth, which division would be ?

Re: Composition of Soviet 28th and 29th Army in July/Aug 1941

Post by Kelvin » 21 Jun 2016, 08:37

I found that the core of 243-256 Rifle divisons were came from 1500 men from NKVD for each divisions, 500 command cadre and 1000 soldiers and NCO. (243, 244, 246,247,249,250,251,252,254,256 RD), performance was not particular good.

And Soviet OOB on June 22 1941, I know why 97 Rifle Divsion and 60 Mot and Tank Divisions were counted in field army but I don't why 31 divisions in Far East and Transbaibal were counted in servcie command, Japanese threat was also serious. Why don't counted in Field army.

And so called Reserve Armies, exactly only cadre on June 22 1941 ? like 19-24 Armies ?

And altogether Soviet had 303 Divisions on June 22 1941 in the whole country, even higher than cold war peak level. ( 198 x Rifle divisions, 61 x Tank and 31 x motorized infantry divisions and 13 x Cavlary divisions). Not 200 divisions that I see in other books.


The roots of International Harvester run to the 1830s, when Cyrus Hall McCormick, an inventor from Virginia, finalized his version of a horse-drawn reaper, which he field-demonstrated throughout 1831, and for which he received a patent in 1834. Together with his brother Leander J. McCormick (1819–1900), McCormick moved to Chicago in 1847 and started the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company. The McCormick reaper sold well, partially as a result of savvy and innovative business practices. Their products came onto the market just as the development of railroads offered wide distribution to distant market areas. He developed marketing and sales techniques, developing a vast network of trained salesmen able to demonstrate operation of the machines in the field.

McCormick died in 1885, with his company passing to his son, Cyrus McCormick, Jr. In 1902 the McCormick Harvesting Machine Company and Deering Harvester Company, along with three smaller agricultural equipment firms (Milwaukee Plano and Warder, Bushnell, and Glessner—manufacturers of Champion brand) merged to create the International Harvester Company. In 1919, the Parlin and Orendorff factory in Canton, Illinois was a leader in the plow manufacturing industry. International Harvester purchased the factory calling it the Canton Works it continued production for many decades.

In 1926 IH's Farmall Works began production in a new plant in Rock Island, Illinois, built solely to produce the new Farmall tractor. By 1930, the 100,000th Farmall was produced. IH next set their sights on introducing a true 'general-purpose' tractor designed to satisfy the needs of the average US family farmer. The resulting 'letter' series of Raymond Loewy-designed Farmall tractors in 1939 proved a huge success, and IH enjoyed a sales lead in tractors and related equipment that continued through much of the 1940s and 1950s, despite stiff competition from Ford, John Deere and other tractor manufacturers.

IH ranked 33rd among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts.[1] In 1946 IH acquired a defense plant in Louisville, Kentucky, which was enlarged, expanded, and re-equipped for production of the Farmall A, B, and the new 340 tractors. Then in 1948 IH acquired the Metropolitan Body Company of Bridgeport, CT.[2] This was the manufacturing facility for the bodies of the commercially successful Metro line of forward control vans and trucks from 1938 until roughly 1964.

In 1974, the 5 millionth IHC tractor was produced at the Rock Island Farmall plant.

Throughout the 1960s and 1970s, despite good sales, IH's profit margins remained slim. The continual adding of unrelated business lines created a somewhat unwieldy corporate organization, and the company found it difficult to focus on a primary business, be it agricultural equipment, construction equipment, or truck production. An overly conservative management, combined with a rigid policy of in-house promotions tended to stifle new management strategies as well as technical innovation. Products with increasingly ancient technology continued in production year after year despite their marginal addition to sales. Worse, IH now not only faced a threat of stiff competition in each of its main corporate businesses, but also had to contend with greatly increased production costs, primarily due to labor and government-imposed environmental and safety regulations.[3]

In 1979 IH named a new CEO, who was determined to improve profit margins and drastically cut a ballooning cost structure. Unprofitable model lines were terminated, and factory production curtailed. By the end of the year, IH profits were at their highest in 10 years, but cash reserves were still too low. Union members became increasingly irate over production cutbacks and other cost-cutting measures. In the spring and summer of 1979, IH began short-term planning for a strike that seemed inevitable. Then on November 1, IH announced figures showing that president and chairman Archie McCardell received a $1.8 million (in 1979 values) bonus. McCardell sought overtime, work rule, and other changes from the UAW, which led to a strike on November 2, 1979.[4]

Soon after, the economy turned unfavorable, and IH faced a financial crisis. The strike lasted approximately six months. When it ended, IH had lost almost $600 million (in 1979 value over $2 billion today).[5]

By 1981 the company's finances were at their lowest point ever. The strike, accompanied by the economy and internal corporate problems, had placed IH in a hole that had only a slim way out.[6] Things only got worse until 1984, when the bitter end came.

International Harvester, following long negotiations, agreed to sell its agricultural products division to Tenneco, Inc. on November 26, 1984. Tenneco had a subsidiary, J.I. Case, that manufactured tractors, but lacked the full line of farm implements that IH produced (combines, cotton pickers, tillage equipment etc.)

Following the merger, tractor production at Harvester's Rock Island, Illinois Farmall Works ceased in May 1985. Production of the new Case IH tractors moved to the J.I. Case Tractor Works in Racine, Wisconsin. Production of IH Axial-Flow combines continued at the East Moline, Illinois combine factory. Harvester's Memphis Works in Memphis, Tennessee was closed and cotton picker production was moved.

The truck and engine divisions remained, and in 1986 Harvester changed the corporate name to Navistar International Corporation (Harvester had sold the International Harvester name and the IH symbol to Tenneco Inc. as part of the sale of its agricultural products division). Navistar International Corporation continues to manufacture medium- and heavy-duty trucks, school buses, and engines under the International brand name.[5]

The International Harvester Agricultural Division was 2nd to the Truck Division but was the best-known IH subsidiary. When IH sold the agricultural products division to Tenneco in 1985, the International Harvester name and "IH" logo, went with it.

One of the early products (besides the harvesting equipment that McCormick and Deering had been making prior to the merger) from the newly created International Harvester Company was the Traction Truck: a truck frame manufactured by Morton Traction Truck Company (later bought by IHC) with an IHC engine installed.

From 1902, when IH was formed, to the early 1920s, the McCormick and Deering dealerships kept their original brands unique, with Mogul tractors sold at McCormick dealers, and Titan tractors at Deering dealerships, due to the still present competitiveness of the former rivals.

IH produced a range of large gasoline-powered farm tractors under the Mogul and Titan brands. Sold by McCormick dealers, the Type C Mogul was little more than a stationary engine on a tractor chassis, fitted with friction drive (one speed forward, one reverse).[7] Between 1911 and 1914, 862 Moguls were built.[7] These tractors had varied success but the trend going into the mid-1910s was "small" and "cheap".

The first important tractors from IH were the model 10-20 and 15-30. Introduced in 1915, the tractors (which were smaller than their predecessors) were primarily used as traction engines to pull plows and for belt work on threshing machines. The 10-20 and 15-30 both had separate, but similar, Mogul and Titan versions.

Around this time, IHC purchased a number of smaller companies to incorporate their products into the IH dealer arsenal. Parlin & Orendorff aka P&O Plow and Chattanooga Plow were purchased in 1919. Other brand names they incorporated include, but are not limited to, Keystone, D.M. Osborne, Kemp, Meadows, Sterling, Weber, Plano and Champion.

In 1924 IH introduced the Farmall tractor, a smaller general-purpose tractor, to fend off competition from the Ford Motor Company's Fordson tractors. The Farmall was a leader in the emerging row-crop tractor category.

Following the introduction of the Farmall, IH introduced several similar looking "F Series" models that offered improvements over the original design (the original model became known as the "Regular").

In 1932 IH produced their first diesel engine, in the McCormick-Deering TD-40 crawler. This engine started on gasoline, then switched over to diesel fuel. Diesel engines of this era were difficult to start in cold weather, and using gasoline allowed the engine to start easily and thoroughly warm up before making the switch to diesel in all weather conditions. In 1935 this engine was put in the International Harvester WD-40, becoming the first diesel tractor on wheels in North America[8] (the world's first diesel tractor was the German Benz-Sendling BS 6, introduced in 1922).

The letter and standard series

For model year 1939, industrial designer Raymond Loewy was hired to design a new line of tractors. The sleek look, combined with other new features, created what is known as the Farmall "letter series" (A, B, BN, C, H and M) and the McCormick-Deering "standard series" (W-4, W-6 and W-9). 1941 saw the introduction of the model "MD" the first rowcrop diesel powered tractor, it would be over a decade before IH's biggest competitor (John Deere) would introduce a diesel option on their rowcrop tractors. The letter series tractors were updated to the "super" series in 1953 (with the exception of the A, which became a "super" in 1947, and the B and BN, which were discontinued in 1948) and received several improvements. Many of these tractors (especially the largest: the H, M and W models) are still in operation on farms today. Especially desirable are the diesel-powered MD, WD-6 and WD-9. These tractors carried forward the unique gasoline start diesel concept of the WD-40.

The letter and standard series of tractors was produced until 1954, and was a defining product in IH history.

For 1955 in IH tractors, the numbered "hundred-series" was offered. Although given slightly different looks and few new features, they were still updates to the models introduced in 1939. The only new tractor in the 1955 lineup is the 300 Utility. In 1957 IH gave the tractor lineup another update by increasing power in some models, adding a new 230 Utility model, and adding new white paint to the grill and sides, and giving new number designations. This improved sales at the time, but IH's inability to change and update was already showing.[9]

In July 1958, IH launched a major campaign to introduce a new line of tractors to revitalize slumping sales. At the Hinsdale, Illinois Testing Farm, IH entertained over 12,000 dealers from over 25 countries. IH showed off their new "60" series of tractors: including the big, first-of-its-kind, six-cylinder 460 and 560 tractors. But the joy of the new line of tractors was short lived. One of the first events that would eventually lead to the downfall of IH presented itself in 1959. In June of that year, IH recalled the 460, 560, and 660 tractors: final drive components had failed. IH, who wanted to be the first big-power manufacturer, had failed to drastically update the final drives on the new six-cylinder tractors. These final drives were essentially unchanged from 1939 and would fail rapidly under the stress of the more powerful 60-series engines. IH's competitors took advantage of the recall, and IH would lose customers in the ensuing months,[9] with many customers moving to John Deere's New Generation of Power tractors introduced in 1960.

Throughout the 1960s IH introduced new tractors and new sales techniques. As producing tractors was the lifeblood of the company, IH would have to remain competitive in this field. They both succeeded and failed at this goal. But farming was about to change, and IH and its competitors were in for a bumpy ride. In 1963 IH introduced the 73 hp (54 kW) 706 and 95 hp (71 kW) 806 tractors. in 1964 IH made its 4 millionth tractor, an 806. In 1965 IH introduced its first 100 hp (75 kW) two-wheel-drive tractor, the 1206. Another option became available in 1965 for the 706, 806 and the new 1206: a factory-installed cab (made by Stopler Allen Co.). This cab is often called the "Ice Cream Box" cab due to its shape. The cab could be equipped with a fan and heater. By 1967, over 100,000 models 706, 806 and 1206 were built.The 276 International harvester was also built at this period of time becoming popular for smaller farms with tighter lanes and fields due to mobility and weight making the 276 a popular seller boosting International harvester's slim profits.

1967 saw the introduction of the "56" series tractors as replacements for the successful and popular "06" series. These new "56s" were bigger and more powerful than the "06s". The new models included the 65 hp (48 kW) 656, 76 hp (57 kW) 756, the 101 hp (75 kW) 856 and the 116 hp (87 kW) 1256. The "ice cream box" cab was still an option. In 1969 IH introduced the 1456 Turbo at 131 hp (98 kW). Also that year, the 91 hp (68 kW) 826 was introduced with the option of gearshift or hydrostatic transmissions. The "ice cream box" cab was dropped and replaced with the new "custom" cab made by Exel Industries, which could be equipped with factory air-conditioning, heat and an AM radio. Another milestone for IH was the 1970 introduction of the 1026 Hydro which was basically a hydrostatic version of the 1256, at that time the most powerful hydrostatic transmission tractor made in the US at 114 hp (85 kW).

In 1971 IH introduced the 66 series line. The new models included the 78 hp (58 kW) 766, the 101 hp (75 kW) 966, the 125 hp (93 kW) 1066 turbo, the 145 hp (108 kW) 1466 Turbo, and the 145 hp (108 kW) 1468 V-8. The 130 hp (97 kW) 4166 4WD was also introduced. The 966 and 1066 were available with Hydro or gearshift transmissions and the choice of two-post ROPs or two different cabs, the "custom" and the "deluxe". Both could be equipped with A/C, heat, and AM-FM radios.

In 1972 the 666 replaced the long-running 656, the 150 hp (110 kW) 1568 V8 replaced the 1468, and the 160 hp (120 kW) 1566 and the 163 hp (122 kW) 4366 4WD were introduced. Also later that year, four-post ROPs replaced two-post The "custom" cab was dropped and the "deluxe" cab was now painted red instead of white. Due to horsepower confusions the 966 and 1066 Hydro models were restriped the Hydro 100 and the 666 Hydro became the Hydro 70. On February 1, 1974 at 9:00 am, the 5 millionth tractor came off the assembly line at the Farmall Plant in Illinois. IH was the first tractor manufacturer to accomplish this.[9] Also in 1973, IH officially dropped the "Farmall" name from its tractor. This ended an era that began with the first Farmall "Regular" back in 1924.

The 230 hp (170 kW) 4568 V8 4WD was introduced in 1975. In 1976 the entire tractor line got a new paint job and decal pattern. No longer were the side panels all white with chrome and black decals: they were now all red with a black striped sticker. This was done to clear inventory for the forthcoming "Pro Ag Line".

In September 1976 IH released their 86 series "Pro Ag Line". The models included the 80 hp (60 kW) 786, the 90 hp (67 kW) 886, the 101 hp (75 kW) 986, the 104 hp (78 kW) 186 Hydro, the 135 hp (101 kW) 1086, the 146 hp (109 kW) 1486 and the 161 hp (120 kW) 1586. These new tractors had a new cab dubbed the "Control Center" that came standard with A/C, heat, and several radio/CB options. The driver sat well ahead of the rear axle and the fuel tank was mounted behind the cab over the rear axle. This increased balance and ride. Also in 1976, the 62 hp (46 kW) 686 along with the "86" series four-wheel-drives were introduced, including the 4186, 4586, and 4786.

In 1977 International Harvester introduced the first Axial-Flow rotary combine. This machine, produced at East Moline, Illinois, was the first generation of over 30 years of Axial-Flow combines.

In 1979 IH introduced two all-new tractors: the 3388 and 3588, known as the 2+2 4wd line. These tractors were the result of taking two 1086 rear ends and hooking them together with a transfer case. A year later, the 3788 was introduced. Despite the fact these tractors performed well in the field, they never sold well.

As the 1980s began, IH was ready to climb from its own depression and become a leader once more. IH would face a stable economy, yet it would face an unknown fate. In September 1981, IH announced at a dealership meeting the new "50 Series" of tractors, which included the 136 hp (101 kW) 5088, the 162 hp (121 kW) 5288 and the 187 hp (139 kW) 5488. IH also released the "30 series", which included the 81 hp (60 kW) 3088, the 90 hp (67 kW) 3288 the 112 hp (84 kW) 3488Hydro and the 113 hp (84 kW) 3688. These new tractors would prove once again that IH had the innovation to come out on top. Designed and styled by IH industrial designer Gregg Montgomery, whose firm (Montgomery Design International) later designed the Case IH "Magnum" series tractors, the new stylish design of the "50 Series and 30 series would change the look of tractors from that time forward. IH spent over $29 million to develop this new series, and the result was the last great lineup of tractors from International Harvester.

There were many technology-related innovations in the new series. A computer monitoring system ("Sentry") was developed, and IH became the first manufacturer to add a computer to a farm tractor. Other innovations included a "z" shift pattern, an 18-speed synchronized transmission, a forward air flow cooling system which sucked air from above the hood and blew it out the front grille, "Power Priority" 3-pump hydraulic system, color-coded hydraulic lines and controls, and a new rear-hitch system. The 50 Series had an unprecedented three-year or 2,500-hour engine and drive-train warranty, which would later become an industry standard. Although no new sales records were set, IH sold a respectable amount of these tractors during its short production time. IH also released the "60 series 2+2s" and planned on making the "Super70 series" 2+2s but only a handful of these exist today. On May 14, 1985 the last IH tractor rolled off the factory line, a 5488 FWA.

IH was well into the development of a new line of tractors that would revolutionize the ways of farming when the sale of the agricultural products division was announced. Many of these new features would find their way into the new series of MAGNUM tractors introduced by Case IH in 1987.[9]

Brand names of the Ag division

McCormick Deering Tractor
IH over the years used a number of brand names to market their tractor and harvesting products:
International (1902–1985)
Titan (1910–1924)
Mogul (1911–1924)
McCormick–Deering (1923–1947)
McCormick (1947–1958)
Farmall (1924–1973)
Fairway (1924–1938)
Electrall (1954–1956)

Other agricultural products

Along with the prominent tractor division, IH also sold several different types of farm-related equipment, such as balers, cultivators, combines (self-propelled and pull behind), combine heads, corn shellers, cotton pickers, manure spreaders, hay rakes, crop dusters, disk harrows, elevators, feed grinders, hammer mills, hay conditioners, milking machines, planters, mills, discs, plows and various miscellaneous equipment.

Also produced were twine, stationary engines, loaders, and wagons.

Electrall The Electrall system was introduced in 1954 it was a short-lived attempt to market electrically operated farm equipment and accessories. The system, co-developed with General Electric, consisted of a 208V three phase alternating current generator connected with electric cables to the device to be powered. The generator could even power a household. A 10 kW Electrall generator was an option on the Farmall 400 tractor,[11] and there also was a 12.5 kW PTO-driven version. The possible applications of Electrall power were many, but few made it to market. IH marketing materials showed a haybaler being Electrall powered. One of the more novel applications of the Electrall was a device to electrocute insects in the field at night (basically like a modern-day bug zapper, but on a larger scale).

1911 International Harvester Auto Wagon

1927 International one-ton stakebed

1961-1962 IHC C-120 Travelette

1979 International Scout SSV Concept.
IH is often remembered as a maker of relatively successful and innovative "light" lines of vehicles, competing directly against the Big 3. The most common were pickup trucks. IH made light trucks from 1907 to 1975, beginning with the Model A Auto Wagon (sometimes called the "Auto Buggy").[13] Production commenced in February 1907 at IH's McCormick Works in Chicago, although production was moved to Akron, Ohio in October that year.[13] Powered by a horizontally opposed aircooled twin of around 15 hp (11 kW), it was a right hand drive model popular in rural areas for high ground clearance on the poor roads typical of the era. It featured a rear seat convertible to a carrier bed.[14] The Auto Wagon was renamed the Motor Truck in 1910, and was a forerunner to the successful modern pickup truck. They were called IHC until 1914, when the 'International' name was first applied.[13] The final light line truck was made on May 5, 1975.

IH also had early success with the "Auto Buggy", which started production in February 1907. In the mid-1940s, International released their K and KB series trucks, which were more simplistic than other trucks released in that era. This was followed by the L Series in 1949, which was replaced by the R Series in 1952, followed by the S line in 1955. In 1957, to celebrate IH's golden anniversary as a truck manufacturer, this was replaced by the new A line. 'A' stands for anniversary. With light modifications to its appearance but more serious changes under the shell (and a number of new names), this design continued in production until replaced by the 1100D in late 1969, which looked very similar to the Scout.[15]

Corresponding with the truck "letter lines" was the Metro line of step (delivery) vans. Starting in 1938 and manufactured through 1975, the Metro series was produced and updated with each iteration of IH's truck lines. There were also special use variants such as the Metro Coach (a bus version with windows and passenger seats) and Metro front-end section and chassis for full commercial customization. Additional variants were based on the medium duty engine and chassis lines.[16]

One of the company's light-duty vehicles was the Travelall, which was similar in concept to the Chevrolet Suburban. The Travelette was a crew cab, available in 2 or 4 wheel drive. A 3-door version was available starting in 1957, and a 4-door version was available starting in 1961. The 1961 Travelette 4-door (crewcab) was the first 6-passenger, 4-door truck of its time. The Scout, first introduced in 1961,[13] is a small two-door SUV, similar to a Jeep. In 1972 the Scout became the Scout II, and in 1974 Dana 44 axles, power steering and power disk brakes became standard. After the Light Line pickups and Travelall were discontinued in 1975, the Scout Traveler and Terra became available, both with a longer wheelbase than a standard Scout II.

IH would abandon sales of passenger vehicles in 1980 to concentrate on commercial trucks and school buses. Today the pickups, Travelalls, and Scouts are minor cult orphaned vehicles. All were also available as rugged four-wheel drive off-road vehicles.

The Scout and Light Truck parts business was sold to Scout/Light Line Distributors, Inc. in 1991.

IH was an early manufacturer of medium/heavy duty trucks. Although based upon truck chassis, IH also became the leading manufacturer of the chassis portion of body-on-chassis conventional (type C) school buses. In 1962 IH offered the International Harvester Loadstar which became the premier medium-duty truck. In 1978 IH offered the International Harvester S-Series, which replaced the Loadstar in 1979.

With the truck and engine divisions remaining following the 1985 sale of the agricultural division, International Harvester Company changed their corporate name to Navistar International in 1986. Today Navistar International's subsidiary, International Truck and Engine Corporation, manufactures and markets trucks and engines under the International brand name.

The Power Stroke diesel engine, which is a trade name of Ford Motor Company, is manufactured by International Truck and Engine Corporation in Indianapolis, Ind., for use in Ford heavy-duty trucks, vans and SUVs.

IH manufactured light, medium, and heavy vehicles for military use. Examples include a Metro van sold to the Czechoslovakian Army in 1938, as M5 Tractors and 2.5-ton M-5H-6 trucks for the US Navy & Marines in 1942,[17] and approximately 3,500 2.5 ton M-5-6-318 cargo trucks provided mostly to Soviet Union and China.

In the 1970s, motorhomes were manufactured using IHC engines and bare chassis. Most of the bodies were constructed of fiberglass.

29 July 1941 - History

  • offers a treasury of teaching units, lesson plans, and resources.
  • presents the human past as a single story rather than unconnected stories of many civilizations.
  • helps teachers meet state and national standards.
  • enables teachers to survey world history without excluding major peoples, regions, or time periods.
  • helps students understand the past by connecting specific subject matter to larger historical patterns.
  • draws on up-to-date historical research.
  • may be readily adapted to a variety of world history programs.

World History for Us All is a national collaboration of K-12 teachers, collegiate instructors, and educational technology specialists. It is a project of the National Center for History in the Schools, a division of the Public History Iniative, Department of History, UCLA. World History for Us All is a continuing project. Elements under development will appear on the site as they become available.

Dunns in Ulster

The numbers of settlers in Tyrone and Donegal was remarkably small especially in the early days. The land was considered hostile and remote [in an era when travel was difficult]. For this reason much of the settlement was by young men who, for safety, travelled with relatives or perhaps close friends. For these reasons the appearance of more than one person of the same surname in a locality suggests that they were related. This is particularly true for a relatively uncommon name such as Dunn.

The earliest record of Dunns arriving in Ulster is the lease of a piece of land by a James Cunningham from Ayrshire who had been granted 1000 acres in east Donegal at Moyegh in the parish of Raphoe. On the 1st of May 1613 some of this land was leased to Alexander Dunne, John Dunne, John Dunne [jun], Donnel Mckym, John Young, William Hendry, Alexander Grynny, and William Stewart. The 1630 Muster Roll [a list of all men between 16 and 60 with a note of their arms] shows John and Andrew Dyne on the same land [misspelling was very common]. A William Doone is also shown on nearby land leased by John Cunningham [a relation of James]. In west Donegal in Boylagh and Bannagh there were two Andrew Dunnes leasing land from the Earl of Annandale. The surviving Muster Rolls do not show any other Dunns in any of the other planted counties or Cos. Antrim or Down. A second Muster Roll in Co. Donegal in 1631 shows that in west Donegal only one Andrew Dunne was recorded. These early records strongly suggest that there were two Dunn families living quite close together in east Donegal and one or two further families in west Donegal.

The next surviving records are Donagheady Church of Ireland parish records. This parish is on the North Tyrone/Londonderry county border. These records show Robert Dunn as churchwarden in 1661. The Hearth Rolls [a form of tax based on each house which had a hearth] of 1665 show a dramatic change in the distribution of Dunn families. At this point there was only one Dunn remaining in Donegal - Andrew Dunne living in Leck, parish of Raphoe. There were two Dunns [John and Robert] living in Leitrim, a townland in north Tyrone. In 1666 James Dyne and Robert McCrie leased an area of land [the townland of Cavancreagh] reasonably close to the land occupied by John and Robert [A townland is an Ulster name for an area of land usually big enough to contain several small farms.]

The Hearth Rolls show Dunns appearing in new areas. George Dunn is shown living in Co. Down. In Co. Antrim eleven Dunns are shown. Of these two have Irish Christian names and lived near Carrickfergus. Of the others three lived in or close to Glenarm and were probably related. Two lived close to Belfast [Knockbreda and Ballyrobin], and one each in Kells, Randallstown, Dundennett, and the last near Toome. There was a James Dunn living at Farlow in the Parish of Tamlagh Finlagan [near Ballykelly]. No other Dunns are shown elsewhere in Ulster apart from the city of Londonderry.

The city of Londonderry was built, fortified. and settled by the various guilds of the city of London. While some of the settlers were Scottish most were English. There was at least one family of Dunns in the city but it is more than likely that they came from a completely different part of England or Scotland to the Donegal planters. A roll of householders in 1628 shows Michael Dunn owning a house and garden. In 1665 Alexander Din acted as godfather to twins James and Mary, children of David Orr. Alexander was buried in St. Columbs Cathedral graveyard on the 13th Feb 1673. The cathedral records also show Charles Dunn married to Mary with children Elizabeth [born 9th Oct 1681], Katherine [born 3rd Sept 1684], Mary [born 8th June1688],Francis [born4th March 1695]. Also in this parish John Millar married Jannett [Janet] Dunn. T

In 1697 William Dunn and Thomas Dunn [gents.] are recorded on the Co. Londonderry voters list. [Later records suggest that William probably lived in Legachory and therefore Thomas probably came from Tamlagh Finlagan]. Subsequent records show Dunn families in Londonderry City and the Parishes of Clondermott, Faughanvale, and Bannagher.

Summary &ndash from 1660 to 1665 three Dunn families appeared in N. Tyrone, two closely related [apparently brothers] and the third possibly a relative. It appears possible that they came from Co. Donegal although some new settlers were coming from Scotland. Dunn families also appeared in Co. Antrim one in Co. Down and one in Co. Londonderry. Given the dispersal from Co. Donegal, at least some of these may also have come from Co. Donegal. Dunn families [unrelated] had also been living in the City of Londonderry for at least one generation

CDC SARS Response Timeline

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) was first discovered in Asia in February 2003. The outbreak lasted approximately six months as the disease spread to more than two dozen countries in North America, South America, Europe, and Asia before it was stopped in July 2003. See below a timeline of CDC&rsquos key activities conducted during the outbreak and beyond.

November 16: The first case of atypical pneumonia is reported in the Guangdong province in southern China.

March 12: The World Health Organization (WHO) issues a global alert for a severe form of pneumonia of unknown origin in persons from China, Vietnam, and Hong Kong.

March 14: CDC activated its Emergency Operations Center (EOC).

March 15: CDC issues first health alert and hosts media telebriefing about an atypical pneumonia that has been named Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). CDC issues interim guidelines for state and local health departments on SARS.

CDC issues a &ldquoHealth Alert Notice&rdquo for travelers to the United States from Hong Kong, Guangdong Province (China).

March 20: CDC issues infection control precautions for aerosol-generating procedures on patients who are suspected of having SARS.

March 22: CDC issues interim laboratory biosafety guidelines for handling and processing specimens associated with SARS.

March 24: CDC laboratory analysis suggests a new coronavirus may be the cause of SARS. In the United States, 39 suspect cases (to date) had been identified. Of those cases, 32 of 39 had traveled to countries were SARS was reported.

March 27: CDC issues interim domestic guidelines for management of exposures to SARS for healthcare and other institutional settings.

March 28: The SARs outbreak is more widespread. CDC begins utilizing pandemic planning for SARS.

March 29: CDC extended its travel advisory for SARS to include all of mainland China and added Singapore. CDC quarantine staff began meeting planes, cargo ships and cruise ships coming either directly or indirectly to the United States from China, Singapore and Vietnam and also begins distributing health alert cards to travelers.

April 4: The number of suspected U.S. SARS cases was 115 reported from 29 states. There were no deaths among these suspect cases of SARS in the United States.

April 5: CDC establishes community outreach team to address stigmatization associated with SARS.

April 10: CDC issued specific guidance for students exposed to SARS.

April 14: CDC publishes a sequence of the virus believed to be responsible for the global epidemic of SARS. Identifying the genetic sequence of a new virus is important to treatment and prevention efforts. The results came just 12 days after a team of scientists and technicians began working around the clock to grow cells taken from the throat culture of a SARS patient.

April 22: CDC issues a health alert for travelers to Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

May 6: In the United States, no new probable cases were reported in the last 24 hours, and there was no evidence of ongoing transmission beyond the initial case reports in travelers for more than 20 days. The containment in the United States has been successful.

May 20: CDC lifted the travel alert on Toronto because more than 30 days (or three SARS incubation periods) had elapsed since the date of onset of symptoms for the last reported case.

May 23: CDC reinstated travel alert for Toronto because on May 22, Canadian health officials reported a cluster of five new probable SARS cases.

June 4: CDC removed the travel alert for Singapore and downgraded the traveler notification for Hong Kong from a travel advisory to a travel alert.

July 3: CDC removed the travel alert for mainland China.

July 5: WHO announced that the global SARS outbreak was contained.

July 10: CDC removed the travel alert for Hong Kong and Toronto.

July 15: CDC removed the travel alert for Taiwan.

July 17: CDC updated the SARS case definition which reduced the number of U.S. cases by half. The change results from excluding cases in which blood specimens that were collected more than 21 days after the onset of illness test negative.

December 31: Globally, WHO received reports of SARS from 29 countries and regions 8,096 persons with probable SARS resulting in 774 deaths. In the United States, eight SARS infections were documented by laboratory testing and an additional 19 probable SARS infections were reported.

January 13: CDC issues &ldquoNotice of Embargo of Civets.&rdquo A SARS-like virus had been isolated from civets (captured in areas of China where the SARS outbreak originated). CDC banned the importation of civets. The civet is a mammal with a catlike body, long legs, a long tail, and a masked face resembling a raccoon or weasel. The ban is currently still in effect.

October 5: The National Select Agent Registry Program declared SARS-coronavirus a select agent. A select agent is a bacterium, virus or toxin that has the potential to pose a severe threat to public health and safety.

Event Highlights

Live Music

Downtown Crossing will host a variety of musical acts that will be free and open to the public. Focusing on local groups that highlight Boston’s vibrant music scene, talented artists will take the stage to provide live programming throughout the event.

The City of Boston’s Official Independence Day Commemoration

Come to the flag raising ceremony on City Hall Plaza followed by a parade to the Granary Burial Ground, where wreaths are laid on the graves of patriots. The parade then continues to the Old State House.

Visit the Historic Freedom Trail ®

Walk into History ® and experience over 250 years of history! Explore Boston’s iconic red line and enjoy special programs and activities at 16 official Freedom Trail historic sites and tours led by 18th-century costumed guides!

29 July 1941 - History

The 2020 Ohio State Fair has been canceled

Today, the Ohio Expositions Commission announced that it will cancel the 2020 Ohio State Fair, originally scheduled for July 29 - August 9 in Columbus. Members o

Meeting Notice

April 6, 2021

COLUMBUS - The Ohio Expositions Commission has announced the following meeting:

Meeting Notice

January 26, 2020

[email protected]
Meeting Notice

COLUMBUS - The Ohio Expositions Commission has announced the following

Meeting Notice

December 1, 2020

[email protected]
Meeting Notice

COLUMBUS - The Ohio Expositions Commission has announced the following meeting:

State Agency Partners

“Ohio State Fair Anywhere: An Online Experience” Starts Wednesday, July 29

A new and exciting way to safely enjoy fair favorites
From Wednesday, July 29, through Sunday, August 9, Ohioans can enjoy their fair favorites from the



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