Montana Voting History - History

Montana Voting History - History

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189244,461Grover Cleveland17,69039.8Benjamin Harriso18,87142.4
189653,330William McKinley10,50919.7William Bryant42,62879.9
190063,856William McKinley25,40939.8William Bryant37,31158.4
190463,568Theo. Roosevelt33,99453.5Alton Parker21,81634.3
190869,233William Taft32,47146.9William Bryant29,51142.6
191280,256Woodrow Wilson28,12935Theo. Roosevelt22,70928.3
1916178,009Woodrow Wilson101,10456.8Charles Hughes66,93337.6
1920179,006Warren Harding109,43061.1James Cox57,37232.1
1924174,425Calvin Coolidge74,13842.5John Davis33,80519.4
1928194,108Herbert Hoover113,30058.4Alfred Smith78,57840.5
1932194,108Franklin Roosevelt113,30058.4Herbert Hoover78,57840.5
1936230,502Franklin Roosevelt159,69069.3Alfred Landon63,59827.6
1940247,873Franklin Roosevelt145,69858.8Wendell Will99,57940.2
1944207,355Franklin Roosevelt112,55654.3Thomas Dewey93,16344.9
1948224,278Harry Truman119,07153.1Thomas Dewey96,77043.1
1952265,037Dwight Eisenhower157,39459.4Adlai Stevenson106,21340.1
1956271,171Dwight Eisenhower154,93357.1Adlai Stevenson116,23842.9
1960277,579John F Kennedy134,89148.6Richard Nixon141,84151.1
1964278,628Lyndon Johnson164,24658.9Barry Goldwater113,03240.6
1968274,404Richard Nixon138,83550.6Hubert Humphre114,11741.6
1972317,603Richard Nixon183,97657.9George McGover120,19737.8
1976328,734Jimmy Carter149,25945.4Gerald Ford173,70352.8
1980363,952Ronald Reagan206,81456.8Jimmy Carter118,03232.4
1984384,377Ronald Reagan232,45060.5Walter Mondale146,74238.2
1988365,674George Bush190,41252.1Michael Dukais168,93646.2
1992410,611Bill Clinton154,50737.6George Bush144,20735.1
1996401,143William Clint167,16941.67Bob Dole178,95744.61%
2000410,997George W Bush240,17858.4Al Gore137,12633.4
2004450,455George W Bush266,06359.1John Kerry173,71038.6
2008479,471Barack Obama231,66748.3%John McCain242,76350.6%

Montana elections, 2020

Below is a list of 2020 Montana elections covered by Ballotpedia. Follow the links to learn more about each type.

President of the United States
U.S. Senate
U.S. House
Congress special election
Other state executive
State Senate
State House
Special state legislative
State Supreme Court
Intermediate appellate courts
Local judges
School boards
Municipal government
Ballot measures
Local ballot measures

Legend: ✓ election(s) / — no elections
Subject to Ballotpedia's scope

Legislative Voting History

Libre’s Law – Co-sponsored the extensive protection law that strengthened the penalties for animal cruelty, updated the tethering laws and put in protections for veterinarians and other professionals from lawsuits for reporting allegations of animal cruelty.

Kennel Licensure – Supported a bill in the Senate that would have required applicants applying for a kennel license to prove that family members who have had their kennel license revoked within the last 10 years would have no interaction with the animals.

Animal Fighting Offense – Voted in favor of law that made it a third-degree misdemeanor to possess any drug, device, or object used to train or engage animals in staged fights.

Cruelty to Service Dogs – Supported a bill in the Senate that would have toughened penalties against those who kill, maim or torture a guide, hearing or service dog.

Abusing Pets of Estranged Significant Others—SB594 in 2015 would have deterred animal cruelty by imposing a fine on individuals who abuse pets of estranged significant others (Passed the Senate 49-0, died in the House).


Local Taverns and Social Organization Assistance – Authored legislation that would make several changes to the Small Games of Chance Act to end the prohibition on these entities from hosting a small number of video gaming terminals, to increase the types of small games of chance they may offer and to decrease costly licensing fees to conduct business.

Business in Our Sites Program – Authored legislation that was enacted which recapitalized the state’s Business in Our Sites Program. This program empowers communities to attract growing and expanding businesses by helping them to make a project site shovel-ready.

Small Brewery Sales at Food Festivals and Farmers Markets – Authored legislation that was enacted to update the state Liquor Code to allow local breweries to participate in wine and food festivals and permits breweries to sell malt and brewed beverages at farmers markets.

Research and Development Tax Credit – Authored legislation that was enacted that reauthorized that state Research and Development Tax Credit for businesses.

Manufacturing Reinvestment – Co-prime sponsor of legislation that would provide an incentive to Pennsylvania manufacturers that make large scale investments to increase or establish manufacturing capacity within the Commonwealth.

Office of Small Business Advocate – Supported increased funding to the Office of the Small Business Advocate

Start-up Assistance for Veteran-Owned Businesses – Supported measure that created a business start-up fee exemption for veteran-owned or reservist-owned small businesses.

Angel Investment Tax Credits – Introduced legislation to provide a tax credit program for individuals who review new businesses and proposed businesses and make investments.

Sales Tax Filing Reform – Introduced legislation that would reinstate the former semi-monthly filing schedule for the Sales and Use Tax for certain businesses that have volatile sales.


Reporting of Child Abuse by School Employees – Authored and advanced landmark child protection law that requires all school personnel to report cases of child abuse to law enforcement and the state Department of Human Services ChildLine. Prior to enactment of this law, employees were only responsible to report suspected cases of abuse to a supervisor within the institution.

Activities for Foster Children – Supported legislation that provides guidelines and standards for guardians of a foster child to decide if a child should participate in certain activities and events. Previously, a foster child needed pre-approval from their respective agency to participate in certain events. Permission was required for activities such as: staying over at someone’s house, playing sports, or going on a field trip. This new law will let the child’s guardian approve these types of trips, outings and activities, giving foster children more opportunities to lead a normal life.

Family Support Orders – Voted in favor of legislation that updated the state Family Support Act to bring Pennsylvania into compliance with uniform laws regarding interstate and international jurisdiction of family support orders. Also requires county agencies to contact the police and report suspicions of a child being a victim of sex trafficking.

Cyber harassment of a Child – Supported the law that was enacted which added “cyber harassment of a child” as a penalty under the Pennsylvania Crimes Code.

Statute of Limitations on Sexual Offenses and Human Trafficking – Supported legislation in the Senate that would have given victims more time to file a civil suit against a child sexual abuse perpetrator. Also voted in favor of similar legislation that would have completely removed the statute of limitations on child sex abuse cases.

Sale of E-Cigarettes to Minors – Supports legislation to prevent the sale of electronic cigarettes to minors.

Sale of Powdered Alcohol to Minors – Supported legislation in the Senate that would ban minors from using powdered alcohol.

Information Sharing Between Child Welfare Agencies – Voted in favor of a measure that enhanced information sharing between agencies involved in child welfare, child delinquency or the identification of at risk children. This law allows these agencies to enter into information sharing agreements and requires children and youth agencies, courts or juvenile probation departments to provide all records containing drug and alcohol treatment, mental health information and educational background to the county agency, court or juvenile probation department requesting the information

Stability for At-Risk Students – Supported legislation in the Senate that would have amended the Code of Judicial Procedure to ensure that a child placed in shelter care be able to remain in the same school they attended prior to placement.

Transitioning Disabled Students to the Workforce – Voted in favor of the “Work Experience for High School Students with Disabilities Act” to help disabled students transition from school into the workforce.


Funding Assistance for Private Water and Sewer Lateral Repairs – Authored and championed recently enacted legislation that allows local municipal authorities to use public funds to repair private water and sewer laterals.

Carbon Monoxide Detector Requirements – Authored a package of bills that would require carbon monoxide detectors to be placed in buildings such as schools, child care facilities, dormitories, nursing homes, assisted living and long term care facilities and overnight lodging establishments.

Credit Freeze Changes – Authored legislation that would bring Pennsylvania’s law to reflect the majority of states in the nation and to allow an individual to place a lifetime freeze on their credit. With the increase to this timeframe, my bill would also lower the maximum amount to be charged to $5 by each of the reporting agencies to temporary unfreeze one’s credit. This will allow individuals to sign up for a credit card or apply for a loan without having to pay hefty fees.

Licensure of Mortgage Servicers – Supported the enactment of the licensure and regulation of mortgage servicers—non-bank entities that handle daily actions between lender and consumer, such as collection and recording of payments, payment of taxes and insurance from escrow, calculating interest rates, negotiating loan modifications, and supervising foreclosures.

Prescription Waste Collection Programs – Voted in favor of the law that established prescription waste collection programs as a safe way to dispose of medications.

Refunds to Certain Natural Gas Customers – Supported enactment of legislation that allowed for customers refunds when they overpay the projected natural gas cost.

Protections for Natural Gas Leaseholders – Supported legislation in the Senate to protect natural gas leaseholders to ensure fairness in royalty payments of which they are due and to protect them from being retaliated against by drillers.

Protections for 911 Callers – Voted in favor of law that ensures protections of the identity and personal information of individuals who make 911 calls.

Protections Against Fake Medical Professionals – Voted in favor of the measure that makes it a 1 st degree misdemeanor to impersonate a doctor when it comes to medical treatment or advice.


Online Posting of School Policies – Authored legislation that was enacted to require all school districts to post their school policies on the district’s public website.

Full Day Kindergarten Requirement – Authored legislation to require all school districts in the Commonwealth to provide full day kindergarten programs.

Carbon Monoxide Detectors in Schools – Authored legislation to require carbon monoxide detectors in all elementary and secondary schools.

Lead Testing in Schools – Authored legislation requiring every school building to be tested for lead.

Keystone Exam Reform – Supported legislation that reduced the number of required Keystone Exam tests and provided alternative proficiency requirements for career and technical education students.

Special Education Funding Formula – Supported enactment of a special education funding formula for school districts.

Basic Education Funding Formula – Support legislation that would implement a fairer, more equitable funding formula for basic education funding for schools.

Charter School Reform – Support measures that will bring much-needed reform to charter school system with regard to both oversight/governance and payments by school districts.


Carbon Monoxide Detectors in Dormitories – Introduced legislation that would require carbon monoxide detectors in dorms.

Ready to Succeed Scholarship Program – Supported the establishment of the Ready to Succeed Scholarship program that helps college students pay for books, tuition, living expenses and other costs.

Keystone Education Yields Success Program – Voted in favor of legislation to restructure the Keystone Education Yields Success Program to give more students a chance to graduate with an Associate’s Degree from a Pennsylvania community college.


Anti-Swatting – Supported legislation in the Senate that would have required the Pennsylvania Commission on Sentencing to create a punishment for making a false report that leads to an individual being harmed or killed from responding to the fake emergency following a false report/emergency phone call to an emergency service entity.

Death Benefits for Civil Air Patrol – Voted in favor of a measure that added a $100,000 death benefit to members of the Pennsylvania Civil Air Patrol.

Extension of Death Benefits Filing – Voted in favor of the measure that extended the filing period for the death benefit from 90 days to three years, which put the state’s filing period in line with the federal Public Safety Officers’ Death and Disability Benefits Program.

First Responders Solicitation – Supported legislation that allowed first responder organizations to solicit contributions alongside roads and highways.

Tax Credits for Volunteer First Responders – Voted in favor of the law that authorized local governments to offer income and/or property tax credits for volunteer first responders.


Lead Abatement – Authored legislation to create a superfund for lead abatement in places like schools and daycares.

Lead Task Force – Authored legislation to create a task for to study lead issues. Currently serving on a statewide lead task force advisory committee.

Lead Testing in Daycares – Authored legislation that would require daycares to be tested for lead

Severance Tax on Natural Gas Drilling – Support efforts to implement a severance tax on natural gas drilling in Pennsylvania.

Water Testing Disclosure – Authored legislation that requires the state Department of Environmental Protection to provide the water test results to homeowners for all parameters that they have accurately measured.

Climate Change – Co-prime sponsored legislation to ensure that Pennsylvania continues to fulfill its responsibility in fighting global climate change, strives to meet its commitments under the Paris climate accord and attain the goals set forth in the Clean Power Plan.

Recycling Fee Prohibition – Voted in favor of legislation in the Senate that would prohibit recycling fees from being imposed after January 1, 2020.

Stream and Waterway Pollutants – Opposed legislation that would exempt planned subsidence by bituminous coal mining operations from consideration as pollution to surface streams and waterways.

Liability for Use of Mine Water – Opposed legislation that would have allowed for liability limitations for companies that use treated coal mine water.

Plastic Bag Ordinances – Opposed legislation that would prohibit a local municipality or county from imposing a ban, fee, surcharge or tax on recyclable plastic bags supplied by a retail establishment.


Nurse Staffing Ratios – Author of legislation that would require hospitals to post the staffing levels for RNs, LPNs, CANs in patient care areas. The bill would also require the state Department of Health to compile and publish quarterly reports of this information for each Pennsylvania hospital.

Children’s Health Insurance Program (CHIP) Reauthorization – Supported each authorization to extend health insurance for children and has recently called on the federal government to permanently reauthorize and fund so that no disruption in payments and services occur to the states.

CARE Act – Supported the law that would allow family caregivers who are tasked with assisting loved ones at home to be provided with support on the individual’s recovery plan once they are released from the hospital.

Oral Chemotherapy Medication – Supported the new law to provide for insurance coverage for oral chemotherapy medication. The enactment of this law gave more patients access to various chemotherapy medications and required health insurance companies to offer plans that include the coverage of oral and intravenous chemotherapy medication.

Pharmacy Audits – Voted in favor of the law that established procedures for conducting audits on pharmacy benefit managers and requires them to provide a pharmacy with a written report of the audit. The law also requires Pharmacy Benefits Managers to register with the state Insurance Department and establishes minimum requirements on multiple source generic drug lists for pharmaceutical drugs.

Health Insurance Navigators – Voted in favor of the law called the “Navigator Accessibility and Regulation Act,” that requires those who help enroll citizens in Medicaid or a private insurance plan to register with the state Department of Insurance and to pass a criminal background check. This is to ensure the safety of a consumer’s private information and to be sure that the navigator is relaying correct information.

Fairness in Multiple Co-Payments – Supported legislation that was enacted to ensure that individuals do not have to pay multiple copayments for various medical services, including those provided by a physical therapist, occupational therapist and chiropractor.

Suicide Prevention – Supported the “Matt Adler Suicide Prevention Continuing Education Act,” which was designed to raise awareness for suicide prevention and require individuals licensed by the State Board of Psychology or the State Board of Social Workers, Marriage and Family Therapists and Professional Counselors to complete continuing education in the assessment, treatment and management of suicide risks.

Increased Access to Flu Shots for Children – Voted in favor of updates to the state Pharmacy Act to allow pharmacists to give flu shots to children ages 9 and older, with parental consent.

Interstate Medical Licensure Compact – Supported enactment of a law that authorized Pennsylvania to join the Interstate Medical Licensure Compact. This allows medical professionals to obtain licensure in other states more easily.

Modernization of the Professional Nursing Law – Supports legislation that updates the Professional Nursing Law to provide for the title of a certified nurse practitioners in Pennsylvania to include certified registered nurse practitioner, registered nurse practitioner, certified nurse practitioner and nurse practitioner. This legislation will allow these health care professionals to expand the scope of practice to areas of which they have been trained therefore providing more provider options, choice and accessibility to patients.

Flu Vaccine Information – Voted in favor of requirements for the Department of Health to prepare and publicize information on the influenza vaccine for people who reside in assisted living and personal care homes.

Notification of Certain Drug Prescriptions – Supported enactment of updates to the Generic Equivalent Drug Law that now requires pharmacists to alert a patient’s doctor before a pharmacist may give biosimilar products to the patient. Prior to this measure, pharmacists were allowed to give patients lower-costing generic drugs instead of brand name products if they are biosimilar products. This measure ensures that doctors must be consulted before patients receive a biosimilar drug that might not be the best medical option for them.

Prostate Cancer – Supported the “Prostate Cancer Surveillance, Education, Detection and Treatment Act” to raise awareness about prostate cancer.

Medical Marijuana – Ardent supporter of the groundbreaking legislation that legalized medical marijuana in Pennsylvania to allow for the treatment of certain medical conditions.

Right to Try – Voted in favor of the law to permit eligible patients to request and use investigational drugs, biological products and medical devices not yet approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) if the patient has a terminal illness and passes other requirements.

Pediatric Cancer Research State Income Tax Form Check-off – Supported enactment of law to provide taxpayers the option to donate to Pediatric Cancer Research.


Lead Contamination Disclosure – Authored legislation that would require property disclosure agreements to disclose whether lead contamination has been found in the drinking water of a home.

Lead Testing in Property Sales – Authored legislation that would require any agreement of sale for real property to include an option to have the water tested for lead.

Property Tax Rent Rebate for “Baby Boomers” – Author of legislation in the Senate that would implement a property tax rebate for the baby boomer generation. To qualify for a rebate under my bill, an individual must be a Pennsylvania resident who is 66 years and older, whose income is $50,000 and under, and who has lived in their home for 10 years or more. The program would be funded through proceeds from the Pennsylvania Lottery.

Enabling Local Option for Property Tax Elimination – Co-prime sponsored constitutional amendment that would grant any local government with local voter approval, the option to eliminate property taxes and choose from alternative taxing options to make up for the loss revenue.

Property Disclosure Information for Buyers – Supported legislation that was enacted to require property disclosure statements inform the land buyer of the existing storm water equipment and facility conditions. Also supported legislation in the Senate that would requires land owners to disclosure if their property is located in a flood zone or wetlands.

Property Buyer Protection – Supported enactment of law that reduced the amount of time property owners have to correct a building or structure code violation after purchase.


Funding Assistance for Private Water and Sewer Lateral Repairs – Authored and championed recently enacted legislation that allows local municipal authorities to use public funds to repair private water and sewer laterals. Also introduced legislation that passed the Senate which would allow municipalities and municipal authorities to use state PENNVEST funding for water and sewer lateral replacements on private property.

Parking Authority Participation in Economic Development Projects – Co-prime sponsored recently enacted legislation that allows the Pittsburgh Parking Authority to help finance, develop and participate in mixed-use projects. The measure also allows for the lease, license, or easement of land, buildings, and dedicated structures for parking to support commercial or residential uses.

Neighborhood Assistance (NAP) Tax Credit – Authored legislation to double the amount of funding for the Neighborhood Improvement Tax Credit program. The overall goal of NAP is to help improve the lives of low-income people in distressed neighborhoods through the creation of an effective partnership between community-based organization and the business and corporate community.

Intergovernmental Cooperation Authority (ICA) – Co-prime sponsored measure enacted that made changes to the ICA in terms of transparency and creates new responsibilities and accountability measures.

Act 47 Status – Support the removal of the City of Pittsburgh from Act 47 distressed status.

Statewide 211 System – Supported legislation in the Senate that would create a statewide 211 system to provide health and human service assistance in local communities.


Authored, co-sponsored and supported several measures aimed at addressing the opioid epidemic that has devastated so many in our communities throughout the Commonwealth.

  • Authoring legislation in the Senate to require mandatory drug prevention education for all students in middle schools and high schools.
  • Funding of $20 million in state budget to address the addiction situation.
  • Budget funding of $7 million to provide for the life-saving drug Naloxone in the event of a narcotic overdose.
  • Outline licensure requirements of drug and alcohol recovery houses.
  • Require continuing education in pain management and opioid prescribing practices for all licensed prescribers and dispensers.
  • Limit the amount of opioids that may be prescribed for minors
  • Implement the “Safe Opioid Prescribing Curriculum” in all of Pennsylvania’s medical schools
  • Set limits on dispensing opioid drugs in hospital emergency rooms and urgent care centers. Under the “Safe Emergency Prescribing Act,” a health care practitioner may not prescribe more than seven days of opioid drug treatment to a patient seeking treatment in an emergency department or an urgent care center.
  • Limit prescriptions for controlled substances containing opioids to seven days, unless there’s some sort of emergency or the patient’s health is at risk. It would also require prescribers describe the dangers of overdose and addiction with patients before they get their prescription
  • Limit opioid prescriptions to five days while also allowing for extensions depending on the individual patient’s needs.
  • Allow a spouse, relative, or caregiver to petition a court seeking treatment for a person suffering from drug or alcohol abuse if that person also presents a danger to themselves or others and would reasonably benefit from treatment.
  • Provide protections of the identity and personal information of individuals who make 911 calls.


Annual Flu/Pneumonia Shot/Senior Clinic – Host an annual event providing free vaccinations to any senior with a Medicare Part B health insurance card other attendees: AARP, the Office of the Consumer Advocate, and the PA APPRISE Health Insurance Counseling Program, ACCESS, etc.

Property Tax Rent Rebate for “Baby Boomers” – Author of legislation in the Senate that would implement a property tax rebate for the baby boomer generation. To qualify for a rebate under my bill, an individual must be a Pennsylvania resident who is 66 years and older, whose income is $50,000 and under, and who has lived in their home for 10 years or more. The program would be funded through proceeds from the Pennsylvania Lottery.

Long Term Care – Voted in favor of the law that established the Pennsylvania Long-Term Care Council within the Department of Aging. The council advises other agencies and make recommendations on regulations, licensure and financing relating to long-term care.

PACE/PACENET Eligibility – Consistently supports legislation that protects individuals from becoming ineligible for the PACE and PACENET programs due to Social Security cost-of-living adjustments (COLA).


Transportation Network Companies – Became the first member of the General Assembly to introduce, champion and support legislation to legalize and regulate transportation network companies (TNCs) like Uber and Lyft in Pennsylvania.

Highly Automated Vehicle Testing – Co-authored legislation with Senate colleagues from the City of Pittsburgh and Transportation Committee Chairmen to allow for the testing of autonomous vehicles on Pennsylvania’s transportation system.

Ridesharing – Supported law that removed commuter carpooling and vanpooling from being considered as public utilities and ended overly stringent regulation. By making this change, it made it easier for businesses to offer ridesharing, save money for motorists/passengers and reduce the number of vehicles on the road.

Banning Watching TV While Driving – Voted in favor of law that bans motorists from watching live television or pre-recorded videos while driving.

Ignition Interlock Systems – Supported enactment of legislation that made first-time DUI offenders eligible to immediately install ignition interlock systems in their vehicles. Individuals who have committed previous DUI violations or have refused chemical testing may also apply for an ignition interlock limited license if they have served at least half of their driver’s license suspension. First-time offenders will be eligible to apply for the limited license immediately. Adoption of this system was implemented to give consideration to both employees and their employers who may be affected by license suspension.

Transit Revitalization Investment District – Supported law that encourages the creation of transportation hubs.

Protecting Highway Workers – Voted in favor of law aimed at protecting highway workers and emergency responders in construction zones by increasing fines and penalties under the state Vehicle Code for drivers who cause bodily harm or death.

Waiving Tolls for Vehicles Accompanying Fallen Heroes – Supported legislation in the Senate that would require the Pennsylvania Turnpike Commission to waive tolls for vehicles accompanying a fallen firefighter, ambulance service or rescue squad member, law enforcement officer or armed service member killed in the line of duty.

Rear-Facing Car Seats for Child Passengers – Supported enactment of law that now requires children under the age of two years old to be placed in a rear-facing car seat.

Strengthening Pennsylvania’s “Steer Clear” Law – Supported law enhancing penalties for repeat offenders of the Steer Clear Law, which requires drivers to slow down and move into a lane not adjacent to an emergency response area.


Teamed up with Senate Veteran’s Affairs Chairmen and area professional sports teams on the “One Empty Seat” campaign where open seats were designated at stadiums to honor and remember POW/MIA service men and women.

Property Tax/Rent Rebate Program Veteran’s Disability Income – Co-sponsored law that eliminated a veteran’s disability income from being considered as income when determining their eligibility for the state’s Property Tax/Rent Rebate Program.

Civil Service Preference for Veterans – Supported measure that provided for a veterans’ preference on civil service exams.

Stolen Valor – Co-sponsored and voted in favor of Stolen Valor Act that created a new offense under the state Crimes Code when a person makes a misrepresentation of military service or honors with intent to obtain money, property or other benefit or fraudulently holds themselves out to be a member or veteran of the armed forces, or the recipient of any military decoration or medal. Another stolen valor measure I supported was the enactment of legislation that penalizes any individual who falsely claims to be a veteran on their Pennsylvania driver’s license application.

Expedited Teaching Certificates for Military – Voted in favor of the act that expedited teaching certificates and reduced fees for active and former military members and their spouses.

“Honoring our Veterans” Motorcycle License Plates – Supported the establishment of a special veterans’ license plate for motorcycles.

Veterans Transition – Supported enactment of measure to assist veterans transition from their military life to a civilian career.

Persian Gulf War Bonus Program – Voted in favor of measure that extended the Persian Gulf Veterans’ Bonus Program.

Veteran-Owned Business Fee Exemption –Supported the establishment of a state business start-up fee exemption for veteran-owned or reservist-owned small businesses. This law also provided for voluntary veterans’ preference in private employment and enables private employers to adopt and apply a veterans’ preference employment policy.

Korean War Veterans Representation – Voted in favor of law that added the Korean War Veterans Association, Inc. as a representative to the State Veterans Commission.

Veterans Trust Fund – Co-sponsored legislation that established the Veterans Trust Fund to provide grants for veterans’ assistance programs across Pennsylvania. The revenue is used to help veterans and their families, provide for shelter and other living necessities and to build and maintain honorary monuments.

Veteran’s Registry – Voted in favor of recently enacted law that require the state Department of Military Veterans Affairs to establish a veterans’ registry for outreach purposes.


Abortion Restrictions – Fought against attempts that would have imposed the most restrictive limitations on a woman’s right to make medical decisions in the entire country and would have criminalized health care providers in certain instances from performing services that are currently deemed medically necessary.

Domestic Violence Protections – Supported updates to the state Domestic Relations Law to simplify divorce procedures for spousal abuse victims. It enables abuse victims to divorce their spouse without needing the spouse’s consent. This legislation also added provisions to empower abused spouses to refuse marital counseling with their spouse during divorce procedures, if they have a protection from abuse order filed against them

Sexual Assault Evidence (Rape Kit Testing) – Supported legislation that requires the state Department of Health to identify approved labs for evidence testing and establish guidelines for laboratories’ evidence processing. The bill establishes more rights for the victims by making all analyses of their case evidence available to them. The bill also establishes a time limit for conducting and processing rape case testing.

Rape Survivor Child Custody – Helped advance updates to the state Domestic Relations Code to provide custody rights in the event of a child being conceived because of certain sexual offenses. This legislation deprives offenders from interacting with the child conceived by any of the listed sexual offenses (rape, sexual assault, statutory sexual assault, institutional sexual assault, and incest) by ending their parental rights.

Protection From Abuse Orders – Co-sponsors legislation that would require defendants in final PFA cases surrender their firearms. Moreover, persons ordered to relinquish their firearms, weapons, or ammunition would no longer be allowed to give them to a third-party for safe-keeping—guns would only be able to be relinquished to the County Sheriff or other law enforcement agency or to a Federal Firearms Licensed dealer.

The Midwife Center for Birth and Women’s Health – Secured $1 million in state Redevelopment Assistance funding for an expansion of the center. The expansion more than doubled the size of the facility and added 2 new birth suites, several exam rooms, and additional office/storage space.


Minimum Wage – Co-sponsor and support legislation providing for an increase in the state minimum wage.

Nurse Staffing Ratios – Author of legislation that would require hospitals to post the staffing levels for RNs, LPNs, CANs in patient care areas. The bill would also require the state Department of Health to compile and publish quarterly reports of this information for each Pennsylvania hospital.

Unemployment Compensation Servicing – Supported enacted legislation that provided increased funding to the Service and Infrastructure Improvement Fund to allow for improved service to Unemployment Compensation recipients.

Unemployment Compensation for Seasonal Workers – Voted in favor of a measure that was enacted that would allow for more seasonal workers to become eligible for unemployment benefits.

Pay Equity – Co-sponsor legislation that would provide for equal pay for equal work for women. Also opposed and voted against a measure in the Senate that would allow employers to pay employees with the same job functions differently based on the level or amount of education, training or experience they have.

Teacher Furloughs – Opposed and fought against arbitrary changes to the way a school district would be allowed to furlough employees.


Prior to the creation of Montana Territory (1864–1889), numerous areas of what is now Montana were areas of Oregon Territory (1848–1859), Washington Territory (1853–1863), Idaho Territory (1863–1864), and Dakota Territory (1861–1864).

Governors of Montana Territory Edit

NOTE: Term dates are for the full, official term of office, see notes column for clarification of dates when men served as governor.

Democratic (3) Republican (6)

Governors of Montana Territory
# Image Governor Party Term start Term end Appointed by Notes
1 Sidney Edgerton
April 3, 1833 – November 27, 1899
(aged 66)
Republican June 22, 1864 July 12, 1866 Abraham Lincoln Left for Washington, DC in September 1865 to settle federal accounts, obtain federal funding, and obtain reimbursement for personal funds spent on behalf of Montana's government. Resigned after funding issue remained unresolved. [11]
Thomas Francis Meagher (acting)
3 August 1823 – 1 July 1867
(aged 43)
Democratic September 1865 October 3, 1866 As Secretary of the Territory, he acted as governor in place of Gov. Edgerton while he was out of the Territory. He also acted in place of Gov. Smith until he arrived to assume his duties. [12] [13] [14] [15]
2 Green Clay Smith
July 4, 1826 – June 29, 1895
(aged 68)
Democratic October 3, 1866 April 9, 1869 Andrew Johnson Left Montana in July 1868 to settle federal accounts and obtain federal funds following Thomas F. Meagher's death remained in Washington, DC. He was ordained as a Baptist minister and became a temperance activist. Officially resigned in April 1869. [16] [17]
James Tufts (acting)
September 19, 1829 – August 18, 1884
(aged 54)
Republican March 1869 April 9, 1869 Acted as governor from July 1868, when Green Clay Smith left for Washington, DC to April 1869 when James M. Ashley arrived. [18]
3 James Mitchell Ashley
November 14, 1824 – September 16, 1896
(aged 71)
Republican April 9, 1869 July 12, 1870 Ulysses S. Grant Refusal to include Democrats in appointments made him unpopular opponents then accused him of criticizing Grant administration policies, resulting in Grant removing him. [19] [20]
Wiley Scribner (acting)
September 6, 1840 – September 28, 1889
(aged 49)
Republican December 1869 August 1870 Acted as governor until arrival of Benjamin F. Potts. [21]
4 Benjamin F. Potts
January 29, 1836 – June 17, 1887
(aged 51)
Republican July 13, 1870 January 14, 1883 Ulysses S. Grant Term expired, July 1882. Potts remained in office until successor J. Schuyler Crosby arrived in Montana in January 1883. [22] [23]
5 John Schuyler Crosby
September 19, 1839 – August 8, 1914
(aged 74)
Republican January 15, 1883 December 15, 1884 Chester A. Arthur Resigned to accept appointment as First Assistant Postmaster General. [24]
6 B. Platt Carpenter
May 14, 1837 – December 24, 1921
(aged 84)
Republican December 16, 1884 July 13, 1885 Chester A. Arthur Replaced when Democrat Grover Cleveland succeeded Republican President Chester A. Arthur. [25]
7 Samuel Thomas Hauser
January 10, 1833 – November 10, 1914
(aged 81)
Democratic July 14, 1885 February 7, 1887 Grover Cleveland Resigned in order to concentrate on management of business and banking interests. [26]
8 Preston Leslie
March 8, 1819 – February 7, 1907
(aged 87)
Democratic February 8, 1887 April 8, 1889 Grover Cleveland Pro-temperance stance and policy disagreements with Republicans in territorial legislature caused legislators to request his replacement. Later served as Montana's U.S. Attorney and president of the state bar association. [27] [28]
9 Benjamin F. White
December 3, 1838 – December 4, 1920
(aged 82)
Republican April 9, 1889 November 8, 1889 Benjamin Harrison Term ended when Montana attained statehood. Later served as Speaker of the Montana House of Representatives and a member of the Montana Senate. [29]

Governors of Montana Edit

Democratic (15) Republican (10)

    ( Rep ) – 1
  • Alexander C. Botkin ( Rep ) – 2
    ( Pop ) – 3
  • Frank G. Higgins ( Dem ) – 4 ( Dem ) – 5
    ( Rep ) – 5
  • William R. Allen ( Rep ) - 6
    ( Dem ) - 7, 8
  • Nelson Story, Jr. ( Rep ) - 9
  • W. S. McCormack ( Rep ) - 10
  • Frank A. Hazelbaker ( Rep ) - 11 ( Dem ) - 12
  • Tom Kane ( Rep ) - 12
  • Ernest T. Eaton ( Rep ) - 12 ( Dem ) - 12
  • William P. Pilgeram ( Dem ) - 12
  • Hugh R. Adair ( Dem ) - 13
  • Ernest T. Eaton ( Rep ) - 14, 15
  • Paul Cannon ( Dem ) - 16
  • George M. Gosman ( Rep ) - 17
  • Paul Cannon ( Dem ) - 18
    ( Rep ) - 19
  • David F. James ( Dem ) - 19
  • Ted James ( Rep ) - 20
    ( Dem ) - 21
  • Bill Christiansen ( Dem ) - 22 ( Dem ) - 23
    ( Dem ) - 24, 25
    ( Rep ) - 26 ( Rep ) - 26
    ( Rep ) - 27 ( Rep ) - 28
    ( Rep ) - 29
    ( Rep ) - 30, 31
    ( Dem ) - 32 ( Dem ) - 32 ( Dem ) - 32, 33
    ( Rep ) - 34

This is a table of the equivalent or higher state and federal offices and other governorships held by governors. All representatives and senators represented Montana. * denotes cases where the governor resigned the governorship to accept the other office.

Other high offices held by Montanans
Governor Gubernatorial term Higher offices held
Joseph Toole 1889–1893
Territorial Delegate
Joseph M. Dixon 1921–1925 U.S. Representative, U.S. Senator
John Edward Erickson 1925–1933 U.S. Senator*
Sam C. Ford 1941–1949 Montana Supreme Court Associate Justice
Sam V. Stewart 1913-1921 Montana Supreme Court Associate Justice
Roy E. Ayers 1937–1941 U.S. Representative
Forrest H. Anderson 1969–1973 Montana Supreme Court Associate Justice
John W. Bonner 1949-1953 Montana Supreme Court Associate Justice
Greg Gianforte 2021– U.S. Representative

As of April 2021 [update] , there are four former governors of Montana who are currently living, the oldest former governor of Montana being Ted Schwinden (served 1981–1989, born 1925). The most recent death of a former governor of Montana was that of Stan Stephens (served 1989–1993, born 1929), on April 3, 2021. The most recently serving former governor of Montana to die was Judy Martz (served 2001–2005, born 1943), on October 30, 2017.

Whopping Irregularities 'Could Have Easily Swung' Elections: Alarming Audit Results in Montana

There are a panoply of problems with H.R. 1 and S.1 — the House and Senate companion bills that would effect a massive voter overhaul on the federal level on an unprecedented scale. A lot of them center on how the so-called “For the People Act” deals with mail-in voting.

The bills stipulate that no state can “require an individual to provide any form of identification as a condition of obtaining an absentee ballot,” nor can it “require notarization or witness signature or other formal authentication (other than voter attestation) as a condition of obtaining or casting an absentee ballot.”

The bills effectively make ballot harvesting legal nationwide, too each state “shall permit a voter to designate any person to return a voted and sealed absentee ballot to the post office, a ballot drop-off location, tribally designated building, or election office so long as the person designated to return the ballot does not receive any form of compensation based on the number of ballots that the person has returned and no individual, group, or organization provides compensation on this basis.”

In other words, as long as the designees aren’t paid by the ballot, they can collect the ballot.

They can collect as many of them as they want, too: States “may not put any limit on how many voted and sealed absentee ballots any designated person can return to the post office, a ballot drop off location, tribally designated building, or election office.”

But as we’ve been told, mail-in voting and ballot-harvesting are perfectly safe and don’t tilt the electoral scales at all — right?

That’s not the conclusion from an audit of the mail-in votes in an overwhelmingly liberal part of Montana, an account of which was published by RealClearInvestigations last week. Not only did the audit find roughly 7 percent of counted mail-in ballots were invalid, there was evidence of fraud — particularly involving nursing homes.

The audit concerned Missoula County, Montana. The county seat is Missoula, a college town invariably described as “eclectic” or “weird in a good way” by your cousin who drives a 15-year-old Subaru, has considered buying a tiny house and who always warns you when you visit not to eat any of the brownies you might find stashed away in a kitchen cabinet because she’s saving them for, um, one of her neighbors.

Its 119,600 residents represent roughly one-tenth the state’s population and it’s one of the reasons why Montana can occasionally go blue for statewide offices. When Democrat Montana Gov. Steve Bullock declared that any county could conduct its elections entirely by mail during the 2020 cycle, Missoula opted in.

Furthermore, in September, a court struck down a Montana law that prohibited ballot harvesting.

According to The Associated Press, the law had been passed in a public referendum in 2018 with 64 percent of the vote.

In late September of last year, Montana District Judge Jessica Fehr ruled the law disenfranchised Native Americans. So, just in time for the presidential election, ballot harvesting was made legal everywhere in the state, including Missoula County.

According to the report of the audit in RealClearInvestigations by author and researcher John R. Lott Jr. — president of the Crime Research Prevention Center and adviser to the Department of Justice’s Office of Legal Policy under the Trump administration — the audit effort began when a group of Missoula County voters concerned about the integrity of mail-in balloting formed in October

In November, they approached Republican state Rep. Brad Tschida, who agreed to take on their cause. Together with lawyer Quentin Rhoades, they got Missoula County Elections Administrator Bradley Seaman, a Democrat, to agree to a volunteer-conducted audit of ballot envelopes legally counted in the 2020 election.

The first problem in counting the ballot envelopes? The number that were absent, for starters.

According to Lott, 𔄜,592 out of the 72,491 mail-in ballots lacked envelopes — 6.33% of all votes.”

“Without an officially printed envelope with registration information, a voter’s signature, and a postmark indicating whether it was cast on time, election officials cannot verify that a ballot is legitimate. It is against the law to count such votes,” Lott noted.

The problem may have been even worse than the auditors found, given that county employees told auditors that some of the envelopes may have been double-counted. Ironically, Missoula County Elections Administrator Bradley Seaman tried to wave away the lack of ballot envelopes by saying that a “double-check process” had been part of the reason for the numerical discrepancy.

According to Lott, when Rhoades told Seaman that election staffers thought they had undercounted the number of missing envelopes — leading to the possibility of a larger discrepancy, not a smaller one — the lawyer said “Seaman appeared extremely nervous and had no explanation.”

There were further issues beyond the envelopes, too.

“Auditors also tested a smaller, random sub-sample of 15,455 mail-in envelopes for other defects,” Lott wrote. “Of these, 55 lacked postmark dates, and 53 never had their signatures checked — for a total of 0.7% of all ballots in the sample. No envelope had more than one irregularity.”

Another major issue was the fact “[d]ozens of ballot envelopes bore strikingly similar, distinctive handwriting styles in the signatures, suggesting that one or several persons may have filled out and submitted multiple ballots, an act of fraud.”

One auditor found that 28 of these ballots, with signatures that looked “exactly the same,” came from a single address — a nursing home, Lott wrote. Another auditor said she saw two different, distinct signatures that kept recurring on the envelopes she reviewed.

Nursing homes, it’s worth noting, have also been a popular target of ballot harvesters.

In an August report published in the New York Post, a Democratic operative who had decades of experience committing vote fraud in New Jersey, New York and Pennsylvania elections, said nursing homes were prime targets for fraudsters. In those cases, the insider said, paid operatives would “literally fill it [the ballot] out” for residents.

Montana elections can be close. Now-former Gov. Bullock himself won his first term in 2012 by just 7,571 votes out of over 500,000 cast. In 2020, House District 94 was decided by 435 votes out of more than 6,000 cast, and House District 96, 190 votes out of more than 7,000 cast.

As Lott wrote, discrepancies like those turned up in the audit that “could have easily swung local elections” this year alone.

That being said, that shouldn’t be the wider takeaway from the audit. Missoula County is just one example of how mail-in voting in the 2020 election was, if you want to be charitable, conducted haphazardly. (If you wanted to be less charitable, you could point out that the “haphazard” nature of whoever was driving election policy always seemed to veer toward the left.)

And yet, Democrats think this worked great, which is why they want to make mail-in voting contingent on nothing but a signature, with no ID, no witness and no notarization required. Also, nationwide ballot harvesting, since that’s worked out great, too.

Yes, it has. It’s worked out great for them. Any attempt at taking a close look at the process is usually thwarted, however — and the audit in Missoula County is an object lesson in why that is and why we need laws that aim to guarantee election integrity, not undermine it.

Montana History Timeline

Beginning some 2 million years ago, however, dramatic temperature changes profoundly altered what we now call Montana. At four different times, great sheets of glacial ice moved south through Canada to cover much of the north. The last glacial retreat, about 10,000 years ago, did much to carve the state's present topographic feature. Montana's first humans probably came from across the Bering Strait their fragmentary remains indicate a presence dating between 10,000 and 4000 BC. Native Americans known to have inhabited Montana at the time Europeans first explored it included the Blackfoot, the Sioux, the Shoshone, the Arapaho, the Kootenai, the Cheyenne, the Salish, and others.

Montana is the fourth largest U.S. state by area, behind Alaska, Texas and California, but with an average of just six people per square mile, it is one of the country's least densely populated states

17th Century Montana History Timeline

1680 - Montana natives acquire the horse.

18th Century Montana History Timeline

1720 - Montana natives acquire the gun.

1795 - Yellowstone River named by James Mackay

19th Century Montana History Timeline

1803 - United States acquires most of Montana in the Louisiana Purchase

1805-1806 - Lewis and Clark Expedition crosses and recrosses Montana

1807 - Manuel Lisa builds first fur fort in Montana on the Yellowstone River

1828 - Fort Union, an American Fur Company post, is built at the mouth of the Yellowstone River

1841 - Father Pierre Jean de Smer establishes St. Mary's Mission in the Bitterrot Valley

1846 - The Oregon Treaty gives the rest of Montana to the US

1847 - Fort Benton founded on Missouri River as military and trading post soon becoming world-renown "Head of Navigation" to the west, and world's furthest inland port. Steamboats brought gold seekers, fur traders, settlers and supplies, making Fort Benton the "Birthplace of Montana."

1853 - Johnny Grant starts the first beef herd in the Deer Lodge Valley

1857 - First sheep ranching begins in the Bitterroot Valley

1860 - First steamboat reaches Fort Benton

  • Placer miners rush to gold strike on Grasshopper Creek (Bannack)
  • 14 July, James Stuart becomes first lawman in Montana History, elected sheriff of Gold Creek with jurisdiction covering most of Western Montana. Served to April 1863.
  • May, Crawford resigns and returns home to an eastern state. Outlaw gang leader Henry Plummer elected sheriff of Bannack and all gold camps southeast of the Bitterroot.
  • 29 June, Chief Deputy Donald H, Dillingham of Virginia City, becomes first lawman killed in the Line of Duty, assassinated in broad-daylight on Virginia City's Main Street by two of Plummer's deputies.
  • December, 102 known killed and over a quarter million dollars in gold (at 1863 prices) stolen by Plummer's "Road Agents" gang. Outraged citizens form Vigilante Committee, and within five weeks 21 gang members hung, countless others banished from Territory.
  • Vigilantes hang Henry Plummer and other "Innocents"
  • 26 May, Montana Territory officially created by act of President Abraham Lincoln, Bannack chosen as first Territorial Capitol.
  • First newspaper, the Montana Post, published in Virginia City

1865 - Montana's first US Marshal appointed by President Lincoln: George M. Pinney, serving from 1865 to 1867. Pinney first sets up his office in Butte, later moving to Helena.

1866 - US Military Post, Camp Cooke, created on the Judith River.

1870 - Open-range cattle industry begins on Montana Prairies

1872 - Congress creates Yellowstone National Park

1873 - Beginning of Royal Canadian Mounted Police, to "destroy illegal whiskey trade and lawlessness" caused by the "Whoop-Up Trail" operation from Fort Benton into Canadian Northwest Territories, the "Trail" having been created by Fort Benton's first sheriff, and subsequently participated in and protected by five of his successors.

  • 24 June, Sioux Indians defeat Col. George ArmB Custer and 7th Cavalry at Battle of Little Big Horn River.
  • Following, Nez Pierce Indian Chief Joseph leads his people out of Oregon into Montana, outwitting superior US Army forces, until surrender in 1877 near Bear's Paw Mountains in northern Montana.
  • Significant copper mining begins in Butte
  • Chief Joseph and the Nez Perce retreat across Montana

1880 - Utah and Northern Railroad enters Montana

  • Northern Pacific Railroad is completed through Montana
  • Marcus Daly establishes the town of Anaconda and its smelting works

1885 - Montana Territorial Government creates first "state" law enforcement agency: Montana Department of Livestock.

1889 - 08 November, Montana becomes 41st state of United States under President Benjamin Harrison's administration, 16 original counties established, and 16 sheriffs appointed by new state government.

1890 - First hydroelectric dam is built at Great Falls

20th Century Montana History Timeline

1902 - Montana Capitol Building is completed.

1903 - Amalgamated Copper Company paralyzes the state's economy with the shut-down to force legislative relief.

1909 -Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Paul and Pacific Railroad ("Milwaukee Road") is completed through Montana.

1910-1918 - Homesteading boom peaks on Montana's plains.

1911-1925 - "County-busting" craze creates 25 new Montana counties.

1914 - Montana women receive the franchise (right to vote).

1916 - Jeanette Rankin elected the first woman in the US Congress.

  • Rankin votes against US entry into World War I
  • Industrial Workers of the World (IWW) organizer Frank Little is lynched in Butte.

1918 - February, Mrs Leo Hunter, Rosebud County Sheriff's Office, appointed first female law officer in state.

1919 - First of severe agricultural depressions (extending into the early 1940s) begins in Montana oil is discovered in the Cat Creek field.

1921 - Wave of bank failures begins in Montana.

1922 - KDYS (Great Falls), Montana's first licensed radio station, broadcasts.

1923 - Jack Dempsey-Tommy Gibbons world heavyweight championship fight is staged in Shelby.

1926 - Montana artist Charlie Russell dies in Great Falls.

1930 - Significant tourist industry begins in Montana.

  • Construction of Fort Peck Dam begins
  • scores of Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) camps are established across Montana.
  • Works Progress Administration (WPA) begins projects in Montana
  • Series of severe earthquakes hits central Montana

1936 - Rural Electrification Administration (REA) begins work in Montana

1941 - Congresswoman Jeanette Rankin votes against US entry into World War II

1943 - Smith Mine disaster kills 70 coal miners

1950 - Great Falls replaces Butte as Montana's largest city

1951 - Petroleum boom begins in eastern Montana

1952 - Mike Mansfield is first elected to the US Senate

1953 - KOOK-TV (Billings), Montana's first licensed television state, broadcasts

  • Aluminum plant begins processing in Columbia Falls
  • Berkeley Pit copper operation starts in Butte

1956 - Construction of the federal interstate-highway system begins in Montana

1959 - Severe earthquakes hit upper Madison Valley

1961 - Malmstrom Air Force Base (Great Falls) becomes site of the nation's first ICBM missile command

1964 - Congress passes federal Wilderness Act

  • Bell Creek petroleum field is discovered and developed
  • Longest and costliest strike in Montana history runs in Butte

1968 - Yellowtail Dam is completed Work begins on Libby Dam

1969 - Large-scale strip mining of coal begins at Colstrip

1970 - Consolidation creates the Burlington Northern Railroad

1972 - Montana's electorate approves new constitution

1975 - Underground mining ceases in Butte

1976 - Mike Mansfield retires from US Senate becomes US ambassador to Japan

  • Anaconda Company announces the closing of its Montana operations
  • Billings replaces Great Falls as Montana's largest city
  • Fallout from Mount St. Helena volcanic eruption blankets Montana

1981 - Milwaukee Road declares bankruptcy

1982 - Copper-mining operations cease at Butte's Berkeley Pit

  • Limited underground mining resumes in Butte
  • Some high-tech gold mining reopens in Montana mountains
  • Burlington Northern sells a major portion of its Montana trackage to Montana Rail Link
  • Last gaps in federal interstate-highway system are completed in Montana
  • US and Canada initiate a Free-Trade Agreement, directly affecting Montana's economy
  • Large forest fires sweep areas of a drought-striken MOntana and Yellowstone National Park

1989 - Montana celebrates its statehood centennial

1990 - Montana's timber-industry income declines, while gains occur in tourism and specialized mining

1991 - Riot at State Prison in Deer Lodge results in five deaths.

  • As a result of the 1990 federal census, Montana loses one of its two representatives in Congress two incumbents oppose each other for the remaining seat
  • Attorney General Marc Racicot (R) defeats legislator Dorothy Bradley (D) for governor's seat.
  • Robert Redford's film, "A River Runs Through It," sparks increased tourism and immigration to Montana
  • a generally wet summer produces record agricultural harvests.

1994 - 4,500 wildfires rage across Montana, burning 286,000 acres.

1995 - Wolves are returned to Yellowstone National Park, where they thrive.

  • Montana Freeman and federal agents involved in a standoff in eastern Montana
  • "Unabomber" Ted Kaczynski captured near Lincoln.

1997 - A prison-population overflow creates a housing crisis for inmates, some sent out-of-state.

1998 - The Montana Power Company sells its electric generating facilities to Pacific Power and Light, Global, Inc.

1999 - As highway deaths rise, Montana reinstitutes a daylight speed limit of 70 mph on 2-lane paved roads.


1 Winifred Mallon, “An Impression of Jeannette Rankin,” 31 March 1917, The Suffragist: 8.

2 Roger D. Hardaway, “Jeannette Rankin: The Early Years,” North Dakota Quarterly (1980): 63–64 Kevin S. Giles, One Woman Against War: The Jeannette Rankin Story (St. Petersburg, FL:, 2016): 25, 33, 38–47 Robert D. McFadden, “Ex-Rep. Jeannette Rankin Dies,” 20 May 1973, New York Times: 65 Joan Hoff Wilson, “Jeannette Rankin and American Foreign Policy: The Origins of Her Pacifism,” Montana: The Magazine of Western History (Winter 1980): 30, 36 Louis Levine, “First Woman Member of Congress Well Versed in Politics,” 19 November 1916, New York Times: 4 Nancy C. Unger, “Rankin, Jeannette Pickering,” American National Biography 18 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1999): 142–144 Wilma Dykeman, Too Many People, Too Little Love: Edna Rankin McKinnon, Pioneer for Birth Control (New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1974): 22.

3 Hardaway, “Jeannette Rankin”: 65.

4 Giles, One Woman Against War: 51–58 Hardaway, “Jeannette Rankin”: 65 Wilson, “Origins of Her Pacifism”: 30 John C. Board, “The Lady from Montana,” Montana: The Magazine of Western History (Summer 1967): 6 Levine, “First Woman Member of Congress Well Versed in Politics.”

5 Wilson, “Origins of Her Pacifism”: 30 Giles, One Woman Against War: 58–59.

6 Giles, One Woman Against War: 64.

7 Hardaway, “Jeannette Rankin”: 65 Giles, One Woman Against War: 69–71.

8 Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “The Original ‘Year of the Woman,’” 30 January 2017, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House.

9 John C. Board, “The Lady from Montana: Jeannette Rankin” (master’s thesis, University of Wyoming, 1964): 76. All other references hereinafter are to Board’s article by the same title, previously referenced in note 4.

10 Board, “The Lady from Montana”: 6.

11 Hardaway, “Jeannette Rankin”: 65, 67 Board, “The Lady from Montana”: 5–6 Norma Smith, Jeannette Rankin: America’s Conscience (Helena: Montana Historical Society Press, 2002): 99.

12 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 101.

13 Hardaway, “Jeannette Rankin”: 65–68 Board, “The Lady from Montana”: 5.

14 Hardaway, “Jeannette Rankin”: 63.

15 “Miss Rankin’s Vote a Personal Triumph,” 12 November 1918, New York Times: 4 “First Woman Member of Congress,” 12 November 1916, Boston Daily Globe: 62 “The Lady from Montana Is Entitled to the Floor,” 11 November 1916, Chicago Daily Tribune: 2 Giles, One Woman Against War: 107–108.

16 Board, “The Lady from Montana”: 8. See also Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “A Womanly Woman with Womanly Ambitions,” 17 April 2017, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House.

17 Wilson, “Origins of Her Pacifism”: 37 Board, “The Lady from Montana”: 9.

18 Board, “The Lady from Montana”: 10 Wilson, “Origins of Her Pacifism”: 37.

19 Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “The First Congresswoman’s First Day: April 2, 1917,” 3 April 2017, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “Jeannette Rankin Remembered in Video.”

20 Ellen Maury Slayden, Washington Wife: Journal of Ellen Maury Slayden from 1897–1919 (New York: Harper & Row, 1963): 299 Hannah Josephson, Jeannette Rankin, First Lady in Congress: A Biography (Indianapolis: Bobbs-Merrill, 1974): 71 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 110. See also “House Wildly Cheers ‘Lady from Montana,’” 3 April 1917, Chicago Daily Tribune: 9.

21 Office of the Historian, “The First Congresswoman’s First Day.”

22 Rankin did speak in December 1917 during the debate over war with Austria-Hungary. At that time, she said, “I still believe that war is a stupid and futile way of attempting to settle international disputes. I believe that war can be avoided and will be avoided when the people, the men and women in America, as well as in Germany, have the controlling voice in their government.” See Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 84 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 114.

23 Board, “The Lady from Montana”: 17.

24 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 76 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 112 Unger, “Rankin, Jeannette Pickering”: 142.

25 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 77 see page 75 for public opinion mail.

26 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 113 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 66. See also Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “Jeannette Rankin: ‘I Cannot Vote for War,’” 5 April 2017, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House.

27 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 88–92 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 127–133.

28 To authorize the President to take over and operate metalliferous mines in certain cases, H.J. Res. 142, 65th Cong. (1917) Mary Murphy, “When Jeannette Said ‘No’: Montana Women’s Response to World War I,” Montana: The Magazine of Western History (Spring 2015): 18–19 Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “Speaking Up,” 7 August 2017, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House.

29 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 131.

30 Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “Jeannette Rankin’s Fight to Make Mines Safe for Democracy,” 19 October 2017, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House.

31 When the committee was established, there was a move to make Rankin the chair, despite her belonging to the minority party. See Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 93–94. On the debate, see Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 123.

32 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 97-98.

33 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 99 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 125–126. See also Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “Jeannette Rankin and the Women’s Suffrage Amendment,” 10 January 2018, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, Women Must Be Empowered: The U.S. House of Representatives and the Nineteenth Amendment, May 2019.

34 Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “Jeannette Rankin’s Struggle for Democracy in Industry,” 16 May 2017, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House.

35 “Montana Redistricting,” 1 February 1917, Christian Science Monitor: 3.

36 “‘Gerrymandering Me’ Says Miss Rankin,” 2 February 1918, Boston Daily Globe: 12.

37 “Congresswoman Said to Be after Seat in Senate,” 28 March 1917, Christian Science Monitor: 1 Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “No Woman Is an Island,” 19 March 2018, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House.

38 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 135.

39 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 135.

40 Michael J. Dubin, United States Congressional Elections: 1788–1997 (Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, Inc., Publishers, 1998): 424, 428 Office of the Historian, U.S. House of Representatives, “Jeannette Rankin for Senate,” 25 June 2018, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House.

41 Joan Hoff Wilson, “‘Peace is a woman’s job . . .’ Jeannette Rankin and American Foreign Policy: Her Lifework as a Pacifist,” Montana: The Magazine of Western History (Winter 1980): 44.

42 Unger, “Rankin, Jeannette Pickering”: 142. For more on the Sheppard–Towner Act, see Theda Skocpol, Protecting Soldiers and Mothers: The Political Origins of Social Policy in the United States (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1992).

43 Wilson, “Her Lifework as a Pacifist”: 40, 44.

44 Wilson, “Her Lifework as a Pacifist”: 43. For more on the Nye Investigation, see Wayne S. Cole, Senator Gerald P. Nye and American Foreign Relations (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1962).

45 Wilson, “Origins of Her Pacifism”: 40.

46 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 172–173. For a contemporary press account of Thorkelson’s reputation, see “Democracy’s Mental Dissolution Pictured as Nazi Goal in U.S.,” 20 July 1940, Christian Science Monitor: 15.

47 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 172–175 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 153–156.

48 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 176. La Guardia and Rankin were both first elected to the House in 1916 and became close friends.

49 Office of the Clerk, U.S. House of Representatives, “Election Statistics, 1920 to Present.”

50 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 177.

51 Office of Art & Archives, U.S. House of Representatives, “Women Take the Spotlight,” 10 April 2017, Whereas: Stories from the People’s House.

52 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 157 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 180 Wayne S. Cole, America First: The Battle against Intervention, 1940–1941 (New York: Octagon Books, 1971).

53 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 180–181 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 158.

54 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 158–159.

55 Robert Dallek, Franklin D. Roosevelt and American Foreign Policy, 1932–1945 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995): 290–292.

56 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 160–161 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 183.

57 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 161–162. The Mutual Radio Network, which had broadcast the president’s address, continued broadcasting in the House Chamber. As a result, portions of the House debate went out live over the radio until House officials realized what was happening during the roll call. As part of a National Public Radio feature, Walter Cronkite reported on this broadcast focusing on the war of wills between Speaker Rayburn and Rankin. “The Lone War Dissenter: Walter Cronkite Remembers Pearl Harbor, Jeanette Rankin,” 7 December 2001, All Things Considered, National Public Radio, See also Office of the Historian, “Jeannette Rankin Remembered in Video.”

58 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 162.

59 Unger, “Rankin, Jeannette Pickering”: 143.

60 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 162 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 183.

61 Wilson, “Her Lifework as a Pacifist”: 47.

62 “Jeannette Rankin, Who Voted Against War in 1917, Hasn’t Changed Mind in 24 Years,” 9 December 1941, Washington Post: 9 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 184.

63 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 184.

64 “Silent Galleries Watch War Vote,” 12 December 1941, New York Times: 5 Josephson, Jeannette Rankin: 163–164 Smith, Jeannette Rankin: 186.

65 Unger, “Rankin, Jeannette Pickering”: 143.

66 Wilson, “Her Lifework as a Pacifist”: 43, 49n42, 50 Unger, “Rankin, Jeannette Pickering”: 143 McFadden, “Ex-Rep. Jeannette Rankin Dies” See also Associated Press, “First Woman in Congress Dies,” 20 May 1973, Atlanta Constitution: 14A Associated Press, “Jeannette Rankin, 92, 1st Woman in Congress,” 20 May 1973, Boston Globe: 87 Giles, One Woman Against War: 388–389 Associated Press, “First Congresswoman, Jeannette Rankin, Dies,” 20 May 1973, Baltimore Sun: A10 Associated Press, “Jeannette Rankin, Pacifist, Dies at 92,” 20 May 1973, Los Angeles Times: 1.

Visual History of Voting in the United States

Most Americans have their first voting experience in school - class president, vice-president, and other officers are chosen every year. So begins their foray into democracy.

In the beginning of our democracy, only white men who were property owners could vote. In the succeeding decades, African-Americans and women were added to the Constitution, giving a voice to those who were previously left out. And yet, many do not choose to exercise their right. In 1828, 57.6% of those eligible voted, in 1876 a high of 81.8% men voted. Since then, there has been a steady decline in those who have participated. In 2016, the voting age population was 250+ million but those who turned out to vote numbered a mere 138+ million - only 55.5% of those eligible. If you think that this is a low percentage, it was higher than the previous half century when the percentage hovered around 50%.

Montana became a territory when the geographic obstructions associated with the rugged Rocky Mountains made the larger Idaho Territory unworkable. Its early history is marked by an influx of men to the gold fields of Bannack, Virginia City and ultimately Helena. Northerners with strong ties to the Union and.

Lately, there has been quite a bit of grousing and consternation on social media about the state of the market and the overall health of our hobby. There seems to be concern about a perceived decline in prices in general and an almost as strong a concern or contempt.

The ‘Mississippi Plan’ to keep Blacks from voting in 1890: ‘We came here to exclude the Negro’

The convention’s president, Solomon Saladin Calhoon, a White county judge, put the voting issue bluntly. “Let’s tell the truth if it bursts the bottom of the universe,” he said. “We came here to exclude the Negro. Nothing short of this will answer.”

Delegates eventually adopted a literacy test and a poll tax geared to suppress the Black vote in a state with a Black majority. The “Mississippi Plan” became the model throughout the South, part of a raft of racially oppressive Jim Crow laws that ended Reconstruction.

President Joe Biden and others warn that Jim Crow-style disenfranchisement is resurfacing in efforts by Republican legislatures in Georgia, Texas and other states to restrict voting. The moves are in response to former President Donald Trump’s false claims of widespread voter fraud in the 2020 presidential election. Republican Gov. Brian Kemp denies Georgia’s new law is discriminatory, but many will disproportionately affect areas where large turnouts by African American voters in 2020 helped Biden and two Democratic senators win.

Mississippi’s 1890 convention sought to find a way around the 15th Amendment to the Constitution, which gave African Americans the vote.

Just two decades earlier, the Mississippi state legislature had made history by electing Hiram Revels to the U.S. Senate. He was the first African American member to serve in either house of Congress. But that moment of racial progress quickly vanished.

After President Rutherford B. Hayes removed all federal troops from Southern states in 1877, White Democrats who’d supported slavery and the Confederacy began regaining control of the states from Black and White Republicans.

Nearly all of the Mississippi convention’s 134 delegates were White Democrats with one African American Republican. A White Republican named Marsh Cook had campaigned for a seat vowing to protect the rights of Black voters. A few weeks before the convention, his bullet-riddled body was found on a rural road.

The Jackson Clarion-Ledger lamented the murder, but added “those who did it felt they were doing their country a service in removing a man who had become so offensive.”

At the convention, one delegate candidly summarized the dilemma of White Democrats: “It is no secret that there has not been a full vote and a fair count in Mississippi since 1875 – that in plain words, we have been stuffing ballot boxes, committing perjury…carrying the elections by fraud and violence.”

He suggested a way to weed out “unqualified” voters, proposing to require that a voter “must read and write the English language or he is debarred from the privilege of voting.” Most of the state’s African Americans were former slaves who had been denied an education.

Men who can’t read “are not of character to entrust the ballot,” the Clarion-Ledger agreed. “A plan of this kind would disenfranchise few White people, denying the ballot only to the idle and thriftless class.”

The convention adopted a provision that a qualified voter must “be able to read any section” of the state constitution, or “shall be able to understand the same when read to him.” A voter also could be questioned to determine his literacy.

Delegates rightly foresaw that White registrars would ask White voters simple questions, while demanding that African Americans answer complex queries. In the following years Black voters in the state were asked such things as “How many bubbles are in a bar of soap?”

The convention also adopted a $2 poll tax (equal to about $58 today) that disproportionately eliminated Black voters, most of whom were very poor.

The only African American delegate, Isaiah Montgomery, supported these requirements. He had been enslaved by the brother of Confederate president Jefferson Davis of Mississippi. Montgomery, an educated and successful businessman, said that Mississippi’s uneducated Blacks would approve of the restrictions for the good of the state.

Montgomery’s optimistic view was that African Americans would be treated equally as their education level rose. “The two great races shall peaceably travel side by side, each mutually assisting the other to mount higher,” he declared in a nationally publicized speech at the convention.

Revered Black abolitionist Frederick Douglass said Montgomery “commits unconscionable treason to his race in surrendering his franchise.” Earlier African Americans from 40 counties in Mississippi had protested to President Benjamin Harrison, but he declined to intervene.

The convention adopted the constitution on Nov. 1, 1890, adding the new requirements to a provision allowing voting by male residents age 21 and older “except idiots, insane persons and Indians not taxed.”

When northern newspapers denounced the literacy test as discriminatory, one Mississippi state senator responded: “I deny that the educational test was intended to exclude Negroes from voting…the sole purpose was to exclude persons of both races who from want of intelligence are unsafe depositors of political power. That more Negroes would be excluded is true…but that is not our fault.”

That rationale was rejected a decade later by James Vardaman, the white supremacist who became governor of Mississippi in 1903. “There is no use to equivocate or lie about the matter," Vardaman said. "Mississippi’s constitutional convention of 1890 was held for no other purpose than to eliminate the [n-word] from politics. Not the ‘ignorant and vicious’ as some of the apologists would have you believe.”


  1. Aelle

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  2. Kajikora

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  3. Payne

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  4. Roxbury

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  5. Orlin

    great example of worthwhile material

  6. Fenrishakar

    Yeah, well written

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