Harappa Ruins

Harappa Ruins


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Technology

The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass.

Harappans were among the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures that conformed to a successive scale. The smallest division, approximately 1.6 mm, was marked on an ivory scale found in Lothal, a prominent Indus Valley city in the modern Indian state of Gujarat. It stands as the smallest division ever recorded on a Bronze Age scale. Another indication of an advanced measurement system is the fact that the bricks used to build Indus cities were uniform in size.

Harappans demonstrated advanced architecture with dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms, and protective walls. The ancient Indus systems of sewerage and drainage developed and used in cities throughout the region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East, and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today.

Harappans were thought to have been proficient in seal carving, the cutting of patterns into the bottom face of a seal, and used distinctive seals for the identification of property and to stamp clay on trade goods. Seals have been one of the most commonly discovered artifacts in Indus Valley cities, decorated with animal figures, such as elephants, tigers, and water buffalos.

Harappans also developed new techniques in metallurgy—the science of working with copper, bronze, lead, and tin—and performed intricate handicraft using products made of the semi-precious gemstone, Carnelian.

Indus Valley excavation sites have revealed a number of distinct examples of the culture’s art, including sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry, and anatomically detailed figurines in terracotta, bronze, and steatite—more commonly known as Soapstone.

Among the various gold, terracotta, and stone figurines found, a figure of a “Priest-King” displayed a beard and patterned robe. Another figurine in bronze, known as the “Dancing Girl,” is only 11 cm. high and shows a female figure in a pose that suggests the presence of some choreographed dance form enjoyed by members of the civilization. Terracotta works also included cows, bears, monkeys, and dogs. In addition to figurines, the Indus River Valley people are believed to have created necklaces, bangles, and other ornaments.

Miniature Votive Images or Toy Models from Harappa, c. 2500 BCE. The Indus River Valley Civilization created figurines from terracotta, as well as bronze and steatite. It is still unknown whether these figurines have religious significance.


Enemies [ edit | edit source ]

Bestiary of Harapa Ruins
Monster Name LVL HP ATK DEF AGI EXP Coins Weakness Drop Drop Rate
Gryphon 17 228 186 55 104 518 154 Sacred Feather 1/8
Minotaurus 17 215 201 40 71 549 113 Crystal Powder 1/8
Mad Mole 16 139 141 24 53 87 67 Bramble Seed 1/16
Mole 10 89 90 14 30 45 35 Nut 1/8
Momonga 16 75 128 25 90 87 67 Weasel's Claw 1/16
Mercury Djinni (Serac) (unique) 17 400 160 46 90 628 257 N/A
Ice Queen (boss) 17 1603 249 63 104 2402 1236 N/A
  • Group 1: Gryphon x1-2
  • Group 2: Mad Mole x1
  • Group 3: Minotaurus x1-2
  • Group 4: Momonga x1-3
  • Group 5: Gryphon x1, Minotaurus x1
  • Group 6: Gryphon x1, Mole x1-2
  • Group 7: Gryphon x1, Momonga x1-2
  • Group 8: Mad Mole x1, Momonga x1-2

Harappa Ruins - History

Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, eastern Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal.

The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River.

The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Cemetery H culture and the Indus Valley Civilization, centered in Sindh and the Punjab.

The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied over 100 hectares (250 acres) at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600–1900 BC), which is considered large for its time.

The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BCE along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh.

The civilization, with a writing system, urban centers, and diversified social and economic system, was rediscovered in the 1920s after excavations at Mohenjo-daro in Sindh near Larkana, and Harappa, in west Punjab south of Lahore.

A number of other sites stretching from the Himalayan foothills in east Punjab, India in the north, to Gujarat in the south and east, and to Balochistan in the west have also been discovered and studied.

Although the archaeological site at Harappa was damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad (as part of the Sind and Punjab Railway), used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artifacts has nevertheless been found.

In 1856, General Alexander Cunningham, later director general of the archaeological survey of northern India, visited Harappa where the British engineers John and William Brunton were laying the East Indian Railway Company line connecting the cities of Karachi and Lahore.

John wrote: “I was much exercised in my mind how we were to get ballast for the line of the railway”.

They were told of an ancient ruined city near the lines, called Brahminabad.

In 1872–75 Alexander Cunningham published the first Harappan seal (with an erroneous identification as Brahmi letters).

It was half a century later, in 1912, that more Harappan seals were discovered by J. Fleet, prompting an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921–22 and resulting in the discovery of the civilization at Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats, and at Mohenjo-daro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.

By 1931, much of Mohenjo-Daro had been excavated, but excavations continued, such as that led by Sir Mortimer Wheeler, director of the Archaeological Survey of India in 1944.

Among other archaeologists who worked on IVC sites before the independence in 1947 were Ahmad Hasan Dani, Brij Basi Lal, Nani Gopal Majumdar, and Sir Marc Aurel Stein.

As seen in Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and the recently partially excavated Rakhigarhi, this urban plan included the world’s first known urban sanitation systems: see hydraulic engineering of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Within the city, individual homes or groups of homes obtained water from wells.

From a room that appears to have been set aside for bathing, waste water was directed to covered drains, which lined the major streets.

Houses opened only to inner courtyards and smaller lanes.

The house-building in some villages in the region still resembles in some respects the house-building of the Harappans.


Origin and Extent

  • The archaeologists had to depend on various stray materials and evidences to determine the origin of Harappan Civilization.
  • The comparative analysis of the ruins found at different places of the Indus valley and Mesopotamia gives us an account of origin and Extent of Harappa Civilization.
  • Some archaeologists are of opinion that the date of Indus Valley Civilization was between 3250 B. C. and 2750 B. C. But some recent discoveries have led the archaeologists and the historians to advance the timeline of Indus Valley civilization. In their opinion, it was not prior to the period between 2400 B. C. and 1800 B. C. that India and Mesopotamia did come in contact with each other.
  • Further, documents found at Akkad, (situated in the northeast of ancient Mesopotamia) point to the commercial relations they established With the Indus people. The Indus cities had their highest development in the period between the third and second millennia B. C. India had at that time carried on efficient trade with foreign lands.
  • Archaeological excavation of excavation of an ancient Buddhist temple was conducted at Larkana district in Sind. During excavation, archaeologists discovered pre-historic clay-pots and a few pieces of artistic works made of stone. The ruins of a very old civilisation were beneath the ground wherein the actual excavation was being carried on. The name of the place was ‘Mohenjo-Daro’ .
  • Archaeologists further discovered in Harappa the same ruins of the civilisation as were found at Mohenjodaro. Harappa was in the Montgomery district of the Punjab and was 650 kilometres away from Mohenjodaro.
  • After 1947, governments of India and Pakistan took initiative to conduct excavations in more other places and discovered relics of the Indus Civilization. It is found that the circumferential extension of the civilisation over the area was 1550 kilometres.
  • Even special and important ruins similar to those found at the Indus valley have been discovered in places far away from the areas near the river, Indus.
  • At Rangur, Lothal in Gujarat, and in some other places near the Nerboda, same traces as those at Harappa have been found. It is as if these areas bore witness to the transformation of Harappan civilization. At Lothal, houses, streets and thorough fares, public baths, sewer systems, harbors far small ships, docks etc. have been unearthed in copies number. These deserve mention along with the relics of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa.
  • Recent discovery made at Alamgirhpur near Meerut following excavation is of great significance. Both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are now in Pakistan. It is certain that intensive excavations will result in the collection of more materials.

Early Symbols similar to Indus Scripts

Clay and stone tablets unearthed at Harappa, which were carbon dated 3300–3200 BCE., contain trident-shaped and plant-like markings. “It is a big question as to if we can call what we have found true writing, but we have found symbols that have similarities to what became Indus script” said Dr. Richard Meadow of Harvard University, Director of the Harappa Archeological Research Project. This primitive writing is placed slightly earlier than primitive writings of the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, dated c.3100 BCE. These markings have similarities to what later became Indus Script.

Notes

The earliest radiocarbon dating mentioned on the web is 2725±185 BCE (uncalibrated) or 3338, 3213, 3203 BCE calibrated, giving a midpoint of 3251 BCE. Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1991) Urban process in the Indus Tradition: A preliminary report. In Harappa Excavations, 1986–1990: A multidisciplinary approach to Second Millennium urbanism, edited by Richard H. Meadow: 29–59. Monographs in World Archaeology No.3. Prehistory Press, Madison Wisconsin.

Periods 4 and 5 are not dated at Harappa. The termination of the Harappan tradition at Harappa falls between 1900 and 1500 BCE.

Mohenjo-daro is another major city of the same period, located in Sindh province of Pakistan. One of its most well-known structures is the Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro.


Comments

The picture on top of the article that shows 70-odd mud brick huts on a hilly outcrop is a reconstruction of the coastal Harappan-era site of Sokhta Koh near Pasni, Pakistan. The axonometric reconstruction was done by me. The site is unexcavated to date. An article by me can be read at:

Well Indians do have the notion of being proud at anything and everything. The Harappan Civilization is ranked among the most Ancient civilizations, and we are clearly not satisfied.

Early Food Producing Era: Ca. 6500- 5000 B.C

Regionalization Era: Ca. 5000- 2600 B.C

Indus Civilization- Harappan Culture Integration Era: 2600- 1900 B.C

Late Harappan Period: 1900-1300 or 1000 B.C

I don't know much about Harappan Civilization but i get it, finding things dated before the civilization period doesn't make it.

Thank you for your comment. Although with all that fantasizing of yours it's lacking a bit of sources and facts.

Let me start give you some.

1). Quote "Vedic culture is oldest".
Which is completely false.
The Vedic culture started from 1500 BCE-500 BCE. There are hundreds of Cultures and civilizations that are older than the Vedic Culture. But since you refer to Greek, let's wander within this context.

The Mycenaean Civilization (2000 BCE - 1200 BCE) alone is already older than the Vedic culture. Let alone the Cycladic civilization (3200 BCE -2000 BCE)
Or the Minoan civilization (3650-1200 BCE)
Or the Helladic Period (3300-1200 BCE)
Or the many cultures, timeperiods and civilizations before that that precedes the Bronze age period in Greece.

2). Quote: "Greek language is derived from Sanskrit"
Absolutely wrong again.
- First of all, The Greek language is alive, Sanskit is dead with attempts to revive
- Second of all, The Greek language is the oldest living Indo-European language in the world.
http://www.humanjourney.us/images/indoEuropeanTree.gif
The Greek language comes directly from the source from the Indo-European tree. The Indo-Iranian language comes after that. The actual oldest language in India is the Brahmi Script of which the oldest date is 300 BCE, much later than the Greek language. The Greek language has the oldest proven written attestation of 3500 years ago and the earliest origins of the Greek language is believed to be 6th-5th Millennia ago.
Aside from that the Greek language is also the richest language in the world, stated also by the Guinness Book of Records with 5 million words and 70 million words when including the fact that Greek language is the foundation of the scientific, medical and Astronomic world.

I refer you to read a bit more real historical, archaeological, linguistic sources. Not emotions and opinions often based on 0 facts which I somehow see to be occurring frequent among people with Indian background.

Vedic culture is oldest
Greek language is derived from Sanskrit
It is called Bharat or Hindustan for your convinience you can call India.

I see what you're saying. Yet I think it's not so straight forward as this.
For example If one civilization was alive from 6000-1000 BCE in geographical area A and in Geographical area B a civilization from 7000-5000 and 4000-1000. maybe connected or maybe not, but for the purpose being lets say not.
Then even though all 3 civilizations died and both Geographical areas experienced an advanced bronze age period, Geographical A might have one civilization that had a in total longer continuous lifespan, but not the oldest.
As even though Geographical area B might not have had the same continuous lifespan but instead 2 lifespans after each other and thus having older civilization. That is the point I am making.

Indus valley civilization just like any other civilization eventually can be broken down into it's archaeological sites, towns, and other finds. There are only very few old archaeological sites in the Indus valley cultures that are before 4000 BC. So going back to before 4000 BC most of the sites would not exist. We could still call it a civilization, even though in the beginning it might be just a small part of the total extension the civilization was at it's height. Only Birrhana and Mergharh being the 2 single oldest archaeological village sites in India and south East Asia dated to around 7000 BC

But in Anatolia, Greece, Levant, Fertile Crescent, Iran, Balkan, China there are many areas with much more and equally or older archaeological town and village sites dated up to 10.000 BC.

Besides the countless examples, lets stick to the one example I have given about the 8000 year old civilization in Greece
http://www.ancient-origins.net/news-history-archaeology/accidental-disco.
"The discovery reflects an incredibly advanced Civilization existing in northern Greece 8,000 years ago."

Not only is it for it's time (just like in the bronze age, Iron age, Classical age, and so on) advanced for it's time, we are talking about many archaeological sites of towns, villages, and other sites with advanced architecture for it's time. The article is 2 years old and back then already found 54 settlements with 24 being found in the last 2 years of which the earliest of these 54 archaeological sites where around 6500 BC.
Do not forget we are solely talking about this civilization and not the many more archaeological sites that are dated to even older dates in other regions in Greece as for example Knossos the capital of Minoan civilization with it's deeper layers dated to 7000 BC continuously inhabited for till 1300-1100 BC

There is more information about the recent finds of this civilization but it's in Greek, which I cannot read. In the same regions there have been 3 occasions where there have been found Proto-Linear writing dated to 5300 BC and 6000 BC, being the Dispilio tablet, the Yura potteries and another of which I don't know the name of. Which is not a coincidence due to the wealth of archaeological sites across the country that are dated to before the bronze age.

And even though archaeology is not sitting still in any region of the world, it shows that civilization in the eastern Mediterranean is incredibly old. I have never doubted that India, would not have old history even though most of it is on the most north western parts of India, but based on current archaeological finds around the globe it's not nearly the oldest


Harappa Ruins - History

A view of Harappa's Granary and Great Hall

Harappa is an archaeological site in Punjab, Pakistan, about 24 km (15 mi) west of Sahiwal. The site takes its name from a modern village located near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 8 km (5.0 mi) to the north. The current village of Harappa is less than 1 km (0.62 mi) from the ancient site. Although modern Harappa has a legacy railway station from the British Raj period, it is a small crossroads town of 15,000 people today.

The site of the ancient city contains the ruins of a Bronze Age fortified city, which was part of the Indus Valley Civilisation centred in Sindh and the Punjab, and then the Cemetery H culture. The city is believed to have had as many as 23,500 residents and occupied about 150 hectares (370 acres) with clay brick houses at its greatest extent during the Mature Harappan phase (2600 BC – 1900 BC), which is considered large for its time. Per archaeological convention of naming a previously unknown civilisation by its first excavated site, the Indus Valley Civilisation is also called the Harappan Civilisation.

The ancient city of Harappa was heavily damaged under British rule, when bricks from the ruins were used as track ballast in the construction of the Lahore–Multan Railway. In 2005, a controversial amusement park scheme at the site was abandoned when builders unearthed many archaeological artifacts during the early stages of building work. A plea from the Pakistani archaeologist Mohit Prem Kumar to the Ministry of Culture resulted in a restoration of the site.

History :

The above map showing the sites and extent of the Indus Valley Civilisation. Harappa was the center of one of the core regions of the Indus Valley Civilization, located in central Punjab. The Harappan architecture and Harappan Civilisation was one of the most developed in the old Bronze Age.

The Harappan Civilisation has its earliest roots in cultures such as that of Mehrgarh, approximately 6000 BC. The two greatest cities, Mohenjo-daro and Harappa, emerged circa 2600 BC along the Indus River valley in Punjab and Sindh. The civilisation, with a possible writing system, urban centers, and diversified social and economic system, was rediscovered in the 1920s also after excavations at Mohenjo-daro in Sindh near Larkan, and Harappa, in west Punjab south of Lahore. A number of other sites stretching from the Himalayan foothills in east Punjab, India in the north, to Gujarat in the south and east, and to Pakistani Balochistan in the west have also been discovered and studied. Although the archaeological site at Harappa was damaged in 1857 when engineers constructing the Lahore-Multan railroad used brick from the Harappa ruins for track ballast, an abundance of artifacts have nevertheless been found. The bricks discovered were made of red sand, clay, stones and were baked at very high temperature. As early as 1826 Harappa, located in west Punjab, attracted the attention of Daya Ram Sahni, who gets credit for preliminary excavations of Harappa. Because of the reducing sea-levels certain regions in late Harappan period were abandoned. Towards the end Harappan civilization lost features such as writing and hydraulic engineering. As a result the Ganges Valley settlement gained prominence and Ganges cities developed.

Culture and economy :

The Indus Valley civilisation was mainly an urban culture sustained by surplus agricultural production and commerce, the latter including trade with Elam and Sumer in southern Mesopotamia. Both Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa are generally characterized as having "differentiated living quarters, flat-roofed brick houses, and fortified administrative or religious centers." Although such similarities have given rise to arguments for the existence of a standardized system of urban layout and planning, the similarities are largely due to the presence of a semi-orthogonal type of civic layout, and a comparison of the layouts of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa shows that they are in fact, arranged in a quite dissimilar fashion.

The weights and measures of the Indus Valley Civilisation, on the other hand, were highly standardized, and conform to a set scale of gradations. Distinctive seals were used, among other applications, perhaps for identification of property and shipment of goods. Although copper and bronze were in use, iron was not yet employed. "Cotton was woven and dyed for clothing wheat, rice, and a variety of vegetables and fruits were cultivated and a number of animals, including the humped bull, were domesticated," as well as "fowl for fighting". Wheel-made pottery—some of it adorned with animal and geometric motifs—has been found in profusion at all the major Indus sites. A centralized administration for each city, though not the whole civilisation, has been inferred from the revealed cultural uniformity however, it remains uncertain whether authority lay with a commercial oligarchy. Harappans had many trade routes along the Indus River that went as far as the Persian Gulf, Mesopotamia, and Egypt. Some of the most valuable things traded were carnelian and lapis lazuli.

What is clear is that Harappan society was not entirely peaceful, with the human skeletal remains demonstrating some of the highest rates of injury (15.5%) found in South Asian prehistory. Paleopathological analysis demonstrated that leprosy and tuberculosis were present at Harappa, with the highest prevalence of both disease and trauma present in the skeletons from Area G (an ossuary located south-east of the city walls). Furthermore, rates of cranio-facial trauma and infection increased through time demonstrating that the civilisation collapsed amid illness and injury. The bioarchaeologists who examined the remains have suggested that the combined evidence for differences in mortuary treatment and epidemiology indicate that some individuals and communities at Harappa were excluded from access to basic resources like health and safety, a basic feature of hierarchical societies worldwide.

Trade :

The Harappans had traded with ancient Mesopotamia, especially Elam, among other areas. Cotton textiles and agricultural products were the primary trading objects. The Harappan merchants also had procurement colonies in Mesopotamia which also served as trading centers.

Archaeology :

A map of the excavations at Harappa

Miniature Votive Images or Toy Models from Harappa, ca. 2500. Hand-modeled terra-cotta figurines with polychromy

The excavators of the site have proposed the following chronology of Harappa's occupation :

1. Ravi Aspect of the Hakra phase, c. 3300 – 2800 BC.

2. Kot Dijian (Early Harappan) phase, c. 2800 – 2600 BC.

3. Harappan Phase, c. 2600 – 1900 BC.

4. Transitional Phase, c. 1900 – 1800 BC.

5. Late Harappan Phase, c. 1800 – 1300 BC.

By far the most exquisite and obscure artifacts unearthed to date are the small, square steatite (soapstone) seals engraved with human or animal motifs. A large number of seals have been found at such sites as Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. Many bear pictographic inscriptions generally thought to be a form of writing or script. [citation needed] Despite the efforts of philologists from all parts of the world, and despite the use of modern cryptographic analysis, the signs remain undeciphered. It is also unknown if they reflect proto-Dravidian or other non-Vedic language(s). The ascribing of Indus Valley Civilisation iconography and epigraphy to historically known cultures is extremely problematic, in part due to the rather tenuous archaeological evidence for such claims, as well as the projection of modern South Asian political concerns onto the archaeological record of the area. This is especially evident in the radically varying interpretations of Harappan material culture as seen from both Pakistan- and India-based scholars. [original research] [citation needed]

In February 2006 a school teacher in the village of Sembian-Kandiyur in Tamil Nadu discovered a stone celt (tool) with an inscription estimated to be up to 3,500 years old. Indian epigraphist Iravatham Mahadevan postulated that the four signs were in the Indus script and called the find "the greatest archaeological discovery of a century in Tamil Nadu". Based on this evidence he goes on to suggest that the language used in the Indus Valley was of Dravidian origin. However, the absence of a Bronze Age in South India, contrasted with the knowledge of bronze making techniques in the Indus Valley cultures, calls into question the validity of this hypothesis.

The area of late Harappan period consisted of areas of Daimabad, Maharashtra and Badakshan regions of Afghanistan. The area covered by this civilization would have been very large with distance of around 1500 miles.

Early symbols similar to Indus script :

Clay and stone tablets unearthed at Harappa, which were carbon dated 3300� BC., contain trident-shaped and plant-like markings. "It is a big question as to if we can call what we have found true writing, but we have found symbols that have similarities to what became Indus script" said Dr. Richard Meadow of Harvard University, Director of the Harappa Archeological Research Project. This primitive writing is placed slightly earlier than primitive writings of the Sumerians of Mesopotamia, dated c.3100 BC. These markings have similarities to what later became Indus Script.

Notes :

Harappa. Fragment of Large Deep Vessel, circa 2500 B.C. Red pottery with red and black slip-painted decoration, 4 15/16 × 6 1/8 in. (12.5 × 15.5 cm). Brooklyn Museum

The controversial Harappa male torso

Another famous statuette from the site is the Harappa grey stone male dancer

The discoverer, Madho Sarup Vats, claimed a Harappan date, but Marshall dated the statuette to Gupta period.

The earliest radiocarbon dating mentioned on the web is 2725±185 BC (uncalibrated) or 3338, 3213, 3203 BC calibrated, giving a midpoint of 3251 BC. Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1991) Urban process in the Indus Tradition: A preliminary report. In Harappa Excavations, 1986�: A multidisciplinary approach to Second Millennium urbanism, edited by Richard H. Meadow: 29󈞧. Monographs in World Archaeology No.3. Prehistory Press, Madison Wisconsin.

Periods 4 and 5 are not dated at Harappa. The termination of the Harappan tradition at Harappa falls between 1900 and 1500 BC.

Mohenjo-daro is another major city of the same period, located in Sindh province of Pakistan. One of its most well-known structures is the Great Bath of Mohenjo-daro.

Source :

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Harappa


Location Of Harappa

The Harappa is an archaeological site located in Punjab, Pakistan, lying about 15 miles west of the Sahiwal city. The name of the site is derived from the modern village found near the former course of the Ravi River which now runs 5 miles in the North. The modern Harappa village is about 0.62 miles from the ancient city. The ancient Harappa was a fortified city and lay between Punjab and Sindh. It is believed it had a population of about 23,500 people occupying an area of about 370 acres, which is considered a large city for the time. The houses in the city were built with clay bricks, and it was heavily damaged during the British rule. The bricks were taken and used as track ballast when they were constructing the Lahore Multan railway.


15. First Dentist in the World

Dentistry is often considered a modern medical practice, but over the years, archaeologists have found evidence of dentists in many civilizations across the world. The practice is actually very old, probably over 7,000 years old. The Indus Valley people practiced it in the early Harappan period. In 2001, while the remains of two men were studied by archaeologists in Mehrgarh, Pakistan, it was found that people from the early Harappan period might have had knowledge of proto-dentistry. Archaeologists finally confirmed in 2006 that the earliest known evidence of drilling the teeth of a live person from the Indus Valley age was found in Mehrgarh. They found 11 drilled molar crowns of 9 different adults in a Neolithic graveyard. It is believed that the teeth are 7,500 to 9,000 years old!

Final Words

As you can see, there are many interesting Indus Valley Civilization facts that are not commonly known. What’s more, there is plenty more information about this intriguing ancient civilization that you will enjoy learning. The people of this civilization were ahead of their time and responsible for inventing, discovering and developing many “firsts” in the ancient world. It is definitely worth making the time and effort to learn as much as you can about this civilization that thrived thousands of years ago.


Watch the video: Οδοιπορικό του Ιεμπραχέμ Μουσλέμ στα ερείπια του Κομπανί μετά την απώθηση των τζιχαντιστών


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